Reactionless generators and/or regenerative motors

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Background of technology, including the basic science foundation

This article introduces the concept of electrical generators and the search for efficiencies greater than one.

Generators and efficiency

Michael Farady invented the first generator, the technology of which can be reviewed here[1]. Subsequent generator inventions resulted in the electrical system we know today as a result of the alternating current system invented by Nikola Tesla. All generators have a reaction to the force driving them as a results of back torque due to Lenz's Law. This reaction force limits the efficiency of a generator. Efficiency is defined as the power available at the output of the generator divided by the input power required to power the generator. (Efficiency = Power output / power input)

Classical Regeneration : less than 100% efficiency

Electrical motors are reversible machines; they can function as motors or as generators. A motor receives electrical power from a battery and transforms it in torque developing a Counter Electromotive Force CEMF, which opposes the battery. A generator receives mechanical power from a mechanical actuator and transforms it in electrical power developing a Counter Torque, which opposes the actuator.[2] This is also known as ‘back torque’.[3]

For example, the concept of regenerative braking is wide-spread and widely adopted. In such systems, part of the kinetic energy of a vehicle is turned into electrical energy, to be used at a later stage to accelerate the vehicle again. Efficiency is limited by air friction which resists the spinning generator rotor, bearing friction, heating due to winding impedance , hysteresis, and eddy currents and other losses[4] and is normally less than 100%.

Overunity claims : more than 100% efficiency

Some inventors claim that they have somehow managed to produce systems whereby the amount of energy that is being regenerated exceeds the amount of energy required to drive the system, in other words efficiencies are over 100% and the system of motor + regenerator acts as a net source of energy.

Such systems fall firmly outside the scope of current consensus on the laws of physics.

The claims seem to centre around eliminating back torque in a generator, a theoretical design for which can be found here

Current state of the technology

There are a surprising number of patents claiming energy systems with >100% regeneration. However, the number of active researchers / successful entrepreneurs seems more limited.

At least one group claims to have been externally validated, Tewari's space generator. "A prototype of the machine tested by Kirloskar ElectricBSE exhibited 165% efficiency, said Murlidhar Rao, former director of Karnataka Power Corporation (KPCL), assisting Tewari. Through an agreement signed earlier, the Kirloskar group company can now enter into a contract with Tewari to commercialise the machine. Anand Hunnur, vice-president, marketing, Kirloskar Electric, did not respond to calls and text messages from ET"[5].

[Caution: The law of conservation of energy still holds true to date. When considering a complete system, any claims of greater than 100% efficiency should be explored with scientific scrutiny.]

Energy Capture & Recycle Environmental Technology Examples:

  • Hybrid Car Technology, Lexus: when you drive, you create energy
    • The Hybrid Technology means using two engines, an engine with combustibil and an electric engine, EV mode
    • When you drive you create energy and this energy is captured and used again to power the electric motor
    • When the car is running on EV mode, there are zero CO2 emission
    • The electric engine is charging through acceleration, deceleration, braking; recovering braking; on city mode hybrid tech is efficient and effective and appropriate for Smart City
  • Energy Observer Boat: can run with wind, solar and hydrogen
    • The first boat that creates energy onboard with solar panels, wind turbines, a kite that converts the engines into hydro generators hydrogen fuel system

Required inputs for energy generation

For most of these systems, some external electricity seems to be required, at least for starting up. By means of example, (McQueen, 2005) states : "An external power source such as a battery is used to initially supply power to start an alternator and generator. Once the system has started it is not necessary for the battery to supply power to the system. The battery can then be disconnected". Tewari's system seems to run on continuous external power for the moment, but "each machine can produce at least 2.38 times the input and can be configured in a self-running mode. Due to concentration on efficiency and design improvements the machine has not yet been configured in this manner."[6]

The inputs for any energy generation process can be represented as shown in the System Representation. [7] The efficiency of the system is represented by the output energy divided by the input energy. Note that all energy inputs should be accounted for, including any internal energy storage within the prototype itself. This internal energy could be in any form, not just electrical energy. Using a motor to turn kinetic energy (motion) into electrical energy is not new, it is a widely known and used effect.

However, using a device to continuously provide output energy in the absence of a continued input of energy is worthy of scientific scrutiny. To test such devices it should be clear where all the energy inputs are, as shown in the system representation diagram. The external input energy is typically provided as electrical energy or kinetic energy, but if in doubt check if the device is consuming ambient heat energy from the surroundings [*]. Note also that the diagram shows internal energy and this might be very relevant to such devices. In particular, take into account the kinetic energy of the moving masses within the device. Note also that a measurement of total input energy and output energy, instead of power, is useful to avoid misleading results.

[*] A device that gets its energy by consuming heat energy from the surroundings is okay. There are a lot of high energy heat sources on planet Earth, and if that heat can be utilised efficiently then so much the better (assuming there are no adverse side effects). However, that is unlikely to be the mechanism for many of these devices.

Organizations/researchers working with this technology

Tewari

Paramahamsa Tewari, an engineer from India who formerly served as the Executive Director of India’s Nuclear Power Corporation, has created a reactionless AC synchronous generator “that claims to have achieved efficiencies of over 200 percent”[8] (see also this video[9]). The inventor’s harnessing of overunity (zero point energy) is considered ground-breaking, and “some are calling his inventions and theories the most important since Faraday” and that they “will change the way magnetic generators are constructed”.[10]

The design uses the same types of materials used in current generators, but the magnetic circuit within the machine is configured to cancel back torque while inducing current and producing power. This might be compared to the rearrangement of materials by the Wright Brothers to build a surface with lift that resulted in manned flight in a time when many, including scientists, said it was impossible. Indeed, physicists who cling to an outdated model of the properties and structure of space have declared what has been done by Tewari to be impossible[11]

Patents have been filed and the RLG is ready to be licensed to companies that manufacture rotating electrical machinery. In fact, discussions with companies on three continents are underway[6].

Tewari's invention is prominently displayed in the docudrama OUT OF THE VOID[12], which premiered at the Vienna International Film Festival in 2015.[13] A clip from the film can be seen here: https://vimeo.com/190251670[14]

"In a tiny room in a Bombay suburb, an electrical engineer works on a machine that seems to have been conceived in a Sci-Fi book - a generator which can ostensibly produce electricity from nothing. But the machine's creator, Paramahamsa Tewari[15][16] (born January 6, 1937[17]), 51, is not an eccentric inventor from one of Sukumar Ray's fantastic tales. He is a senior engineer with the Department of Atomic Energy's Nuclear Power Corporation (NPC[18]) (and former Project Director of the Kaiga Atomic Power Project[19]). Tewari created a minor sensation 10 years ago when he propounded the theory that space is filled with a dynamic medium whose swirling motion is the source of all matter and energy. He called it the Space Vortex Theory (SVT) which postulated that at the heart of the electron was a void whose high speed rotation within a vacuum could produce energy from space. Interestingly, it was the Theosophical Society which had first published Tewari's theory by arranging a special lecture in 1977 at Adyar in Madras. The theosophists were excited by Tewari's ideas since they were remarkably close to observations about the electron put forward by Annie Besant's associate, the clairvoyant Charles W. Leadbeater, in the book Occult Chemistry. However, the first indication that Tewari's ideas about the structure of space were more than just a mystic vision came earlier this year at a conference in Hanover organised by the German Association of Gravity Field Energy. The Space Power Generator (SPG) invented by Tewari won the first prize of Rs 25,000 from among 25 similar machines presented at the conference by scientists from all over. Tewari's generator is actually a simple machine, consisting basically of a magnetized cylinder rotating at high speed with the help of a motor. Power from this device is extracted by connecting a wire between the surface of the cylinder and its axis. According to the engineer-inventor, the SPG produces two-and-a-half to three-and-a-half times more power than it consumes..."[20]

Sparky Sweet Vacuum Triode Amplifier VTA

Floyd "Sparky" Sweet used 2 - 4 x 6 inch barium ferrite magnets, 2 - bifilar would coils[21], and 2 standard would coils to produce enough gain from a milliwatt signal to power multiple 100 watt incandescent light bulbs. These tests were witnessed and reported on by engineers Tom Bearden[22] and Walt Rosenthal[23]. The magnets used in the device were conditioned in a manner that was never made clear to this writer.(Grotz) A magnet Sparky Sweet used was measured with a Hall Effect probe by this author and found to have a highly irregular field. It was apparent from the operation of the device that the field had been made unstable due to the conditioning process and that a small input "tickler signal" applied by the coils would cause a polarity swing of the magnets in the 600 gauss range. The input signal was run at 60 Hz yielding an output at 60 Hz. The name Vacuum Triode Amplifier was applied by Tom Bearden. The name implies energy from the vacuum and the relationship to the operation of a triode vacuum tube amplifier.[24][25] "Thanks to the efforts of Toby Grotz and a short video done by what appears to be a Television Crew possibly for a documentary, the Generation Five VTA was also fairly well documented. Consisting of two Magnets, two Power Coils, two Drive Coils, a Perspex Box and some circuitry this is an excellent visual display of the Geometry of the VTA and gives some insight on how the VTA may have worked. This is the VTA that I believe Floyd had perfected. It’s the Rolls Royce of all the VTA’s to this point."[26]

Faraday Labs

Faraday Labs[27] – CONVERSION OF HEAT ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY TO ELECTROENERGY:  This executive summary by Alexander Frolov outlines the design for a centrifugal Victor Shauberger power generator which “can be used for power engineering in range of 10KW – 250 KW.” The theory behind this machine is that it will “take heat environmental energy from air by means of vortex process”.   Please Note: I found significant research being conducted by Faraday Labs on regenerative energy devices and machines.

Levitronics

Levitronics Inc.[28], is conducting groundbreaking research to harness Low-Mass Electrons (LMEs) as an unlimited source of clean electric energy to replace carbon-based energy production. We aim to become the recognized leader in design of generators which utilize LME induction coils and, in the future, other devices based upon LME inductive materials to the electronics and energy marketplaces. LME induction generators will revolutionize the automotive, aerospace, homeland security, remote energy and specialty electronics industries. These generators will differentiate themselves in the marketplace by increasing electric yield and reducing input energy requirements. The technology offers scalable, on-site, continuous electrical production from compact transportation systems to large-scale industrial applications, independent of weather, sunlight or fuel supply. Our vision is to quickly replace carbon-based energy production with a clean, efficient and economical alternative.

Energy Magnification Corporation

EMC[29] is a startup with one recent patent[30], backed by Angel Investor Nova Spivack from EES ventures[31]. No further info is known.

Peter Lindemann

Peter often discusses the concept of regenerative motors, sometimes referring to them as 'rotary attraction' motors.[32] Peter's website can be found here.

Reasons why the science and technology has not moved forward

[Caution: The law of conservation of energy still holds true to date. When considering a complete system, any claims of greater than 100% efficiency should be explored with scientific scrutiny. Note though that it is theoretically possible to construct devices that take their input energy from the ambient environment (e.g. heat from the surroundings) - this does not violate the law of conservation of energy.]

Wide spread technologies do exist to turn kinetic energy into electricity - indeed just about every power station relies on this. Similarly, regenerative braking is used in vehicles; and is used to increase the energy efficiency of systems.

Costs of facilities, production, now and projected future costs with improvements

For lack of cost data, we can at least assess the amount of material needed for these devices. The Tewari prototype seen on video[9] looks sizeable, for a 6.6kW output (2.77kW input). If we estimate the weight of the unit shown to be at least 400kg, then we arrive at approximately 10W/kg net energy for the current generation. So the technology will certainly not yield "free energy", unless orders-of-magnitude can be gained in subsequent models. For reference : the engine in the video would provide only about 20% of the power needed to run a Tesla model S... [33]

Intellectual Property surrounding technology

The following is a list of patents in the space of regenerative motors and more widely, systems claiming >100% energy regeneration.

  • (Obadan, 2015) Air powered electricity generating system[34] A pneumatic turbine system generates electricity utilizing electrical energy input to produce a constant flow of air that is compressed into pneumatic energy which is transformed into mechanical energy to produce electrical energy so that overall energy output resulting from the combined forces of wind, pneumatic, electrical, and mechanical energy is greater than electrical energy input
  • (Tewari, 2014) Reduced Reaction Rotary Alternating Current Generator[35] A reduced reaction alternating current generator including a hollow stator core, a cylindrical rotor within the stator, a freely rotating shaft coupled to the rotor, a first set of magnets in which the south pole of each magnet is coupled to the surface to the rotor and the north pole of each magnet is facing the inner surface of the hollow stator core, a second set of magnets in which the north pole of each magnet is coupled to the surface of the rotor and the south pole of each magnet is facing the inner surface of the hollow stator core and a set of silicon steel pieces coupled to the outer surface of the rotor comprised of individual silicon steel pieces positioned adjacent to and longitudinally in line with each individual magnet within the first set of magnets and each individual magnet within the second set of magnets. Also : (Tewari, 2015) High efficiency alternating current generator[36].
  • (Demar, 2014) Perpetual Power Generator[37] An electro-mechanical device that can generate 120V AC electricity and operate on its own rechargeable power source. The unit would generate enough power to recharge its power source and provide AC power at the same time, making it perpetual in operation. It would not require any external power to operate at all.
  • (Tracy, 2012) Self-sufficient generator for producing electrical power[38] A self-sufficient generator system includes one or more battery banks recharged by alternators driven by a motor. A main battery bank provides power to a load while other battery banks power the motor...In one aspect, the generator system may create its own energy to run by recharging the battery banks during times of decreased load, in addition to excess energy, which may then be used by the consumer for other load needs.
  • (Thiara, 2011) Self generating electrical system[39] A self generating electrical system includes in one embodiment a 96 volt DC power source made up of eight 12 volt rechargeable batteries connected in series, a first 28 HP DC motor and a controller for receiving the output from the DC power source and supplying the output so received to the first DC motor in a controlled manner...It is an object of the present invention to provide an energy source that generates more energy than the energy source requires in order to operate.
  • (Grimes, 2010) Passive power generation system[30] A passive power generation system comprised of a magnification device for magnifying energy and a recovery device operatively coupled to the magnification device for recovering at least a portion of the magnified energy and a method for making the passive power generation system for magnifying and recovering energy.
  • (Hassnain, 2010) Self Generating Motor-Generator Assembly[40] A self generating motor-generator assembly having a universal motor with AC input terminals and DC input terminals and a generator having a shaft mechanically coupled to the universal motor to generate a DC potential which is fed to the DC input terminals of the universal motor to cause the universal motor to rotate the generator shaft. A second motor which is mechanically coupled to the generator shaft is provide to increase the speed of the generator to its rated speed when the universal motor does not drive the shaft of the generator to rotate at its rated speed.
  • (EGore, 2009) Electricity generated off recurring energy[41] The Electricity Generated Off Recurring Energy (EGORE) unit is a self-contained system that produces electricity at continuous voltage loads without the need of external fuel or additives. EGORE coverts electricity into mechanical energy, amplifies the mechanical energy, and reconverts mechanical energy into electricity. The amplification produces a greater amount of electricity than is required to power the unit; the excess power is stored for external use in a capacitor. EGORE when necessary utilizes a unique inner cooling process that optimizes performance to achieve larger voltage demands. EGORE is modifiable to fulfill small portability needs and achieving all voltage demands. EGORE can be adapted to utilize external cooling and capacitor use with minimal energy losses.
  • (Porter, 2008) Vibrating method for generating direct current electricity[42] The present invention utilizes a contact vibrating technique to generate Direct Current electricity from a battery and coils. The present invention utilizes BEMF (Back Electro Motive Force) to recharge the battery that runs the device. No external charge is ever required to maintain the battery. The present invention utilizes three cycles of operation. The first cycle provides power into the primary coil. The second cycle opens contacts allowing the primary coil to generate BEMF oscillations. Both the positive and negative BEMF pulses from the primary are collected and stored in capacitors. The positive pulses are stored in a smaller capacitor. Also during the second cycle, the secondary coils and associated circuitry collect both the positive and negative pulses from the etheric oscillations, which occur due to the BEMF ringing of the primary magnetic field returning to the zero state. The third operation occurs, when the second set of contacts close and a capacitive discharge pulse recharges the primary battery back to its normal operating level. The cycles are then repeated in a vibrating fashion.
  • (Levitronics, 2006) Self-sustaining electric-power generator utilizing electrons of low inertial mass to magnify inductive energy[43] Electrical oscillations in a metallic “sending coil” radiate inductive photons toward one or more “energy-magnifying coils” comprised of a photoconductor or doped semiconductor coating a metallic conductor, or comprised of a superconductor. Electrons of low inertial mass in the energy-magnifying coil(s) receive from the sending coil a transverse force having no in-line backforce, which exempts this force from the energy-conservation rule. The low-mass electrons in the energy-magnifying coil(s) receive increased acceleration proportional to normal electron mass divided by the lesser mass. Secondarily radiated inductive-photon energy is magnified proportionally to the electrons' greater acceleration, squared. E.g., the inductive-energy-magnification factor of CdSe photoelectrons with 0.13× normal electron mass is 59×. Magnified inductive-photon energy from the energy-magnifying coil(s) induces oscillating electric energy in one or more metallic “output coil(s).” The electric energy output exceeds energy input if more of the magnified photon-induction energy is directed toward the output coil(s) than is directed as a counter force to the sending coil. After an external energy source initiates the oscillations, feedback from the generated surplus energy makes the device a self-sustaining generator of electric power for useful purposes.
  • (McQueen, 2005) Internal energy generating power source[44] An external power source such as a battery is used to initially supply power to start an alternator and generator. Once the system has started it is not necessary for the battery to supply power to the system. The battery can then be disconnected. The alternator and electric motor work in combination to generator electrical power. The alternator supplies this electrical power to the two inverters. One inverter outputs part of its power to the lamp load device and part back to the electric motor/generator. This power is used to power the electric motor. The second inverter supplies power to the specific load devices that are connected to the system.
  • (Mendoza, 2003) Fuel Free And Self Powered Generator[45] The use of this invention in a large scale can effectively eliminate the use of fuel and stop pollution, in this small scale design, appliances and small tools was able to run successfully.
  • (Arnold, 1999) Pulsed plasma drive electromagnetic motor generator[46] A power generating electromagnetic motor which comprises a novel pulsed plasma commutator in conjunction with a bipolar magnetic rotor made of high BH.sub.max permanent magnets affixed to a core element disposed coaxially with drive coil with an air gap there between and providing an adjacent receiving coil for discrete, particle and wave recapture as well as by array. The commutator propels the drive coil assembly with a series of intermittent pulses as well as producing unique power outputs and discrete particles and waves in the resultant plasma, such as Electrum Validum or EV and furthermore is the unique presence of system negative entropy... This novel approach insures absolute zero spark suppression, thereby allowing a pulsed field motor/generator to access heretofore unavailable energies from the CMF (Collapsing Magnetic Field) as well as now useful counter-EMF forces.
  • DIRECTIONAL MOTIVE FORCE GENERATION DEVICE[47]: Richard Lauch earned a patent on his directional motive force generation drive in December 2015 (filed May 2014).  According to the abstract, “A motive force generation device for generating a net resultant propulsive force vector through reactionless drive means. The device includes a reactionless drive that rotates one or more masses about an axis, decreases the radius about the axis without causing external torque on the system therefore increasing the energy level of the mass, continues to rotate mass at the higher energy level, then increases the radius about the axis to its original distance. The work required to rotate mass at a higher energy state is greater than the work to rotate mass at the original state, causing an unbalanced system resulting in the net propulsive force.”
  • FAST ACCELERATION REACTION FORCE CANCELLING MOTOR[48]: Paul Konkola earned a patent on a fast acceleration reaction force cancelling motor in August 2015 (filed January 2010).  According to the abstract, “Particular embodiment of the invention relates to motors that produce reaction force cancellation and are thus well suited to applications where accelerations and reaction forces are relatively large. Such motors are particularly well suited to precision machinery that can benefit from fast accelerations with short settling times. In particular, the motors include movable and counter-movable motor members, where the counter-movable motor member has a reaction mass to counter the reaction force of the first movable motor member.” This machine utilizes a regenerative amplifier for energy storage.
  • INDEPENDENT BLADE CONTROL SYSTEM WITH HYDRAULIC CYCLIC CONTROL[49]:  Carlos Fenny earned a patent on his independent blade control system with hydraulic cyclic control in March 2015 (filed August 2012). From the abstract, “According to one embodiment, a radial fluid device includes a cylinder block having a plurality of radially extending cylinders, a plurality of pistons, and a cam disposed about the plurality of radially extending cylinders. A first linear control is coupled to the cam and operable to reposition the cam along a first axis. A second linear control is coupled to the cam and operable to reposition the cam along a second axis. A third linear control is coupled to the cam and operable to resist movement of the cam along a third axis.”  Related to reactionless generation, this system seeks to harness regenerative power from heat waste, and “replicate desired cyclic harmonic, collective harmonic, and reactionless blade motions”.
  • REACTIONLESS MOTION (RM)[50]: Luis Dennis Tavarez earned a patent on The Invention’s Project of Reactionless Motion (RM) in July 2010 (filed in January 2009).   According to the abstract, “The Invention's Project of Reactionless Motion (RM) reveals a mechanically intrinsic motion technic, without motion opposites' reaction, or mass expelling. The RM invention consists of two circular and different reference frames of motion, under the influence of simultaneous attraction and repulsive forces between them. The consequence of said force's influence is a reactionless thrust in the center of each reference frame. Other effects of this invention are non-typical observations in terms of propulsion technics, Newton's Third Law of Motion, space-time impulse response, kinetic energy, velocity and rotational motion.”

Ability to be scaled

The energy generation process can be represented as shown in the System Representation. For this technology to be scaled up consideration needs to be given to the logistics of scaling up of the input energy, and to the environmental impact arising from pollutants, waste, and land use. Assuming a technology works by extracting ambient energy from the surrounding environment, a significant area of land or volume of sea might need to be occupied. Even with the cleanest energy solutions there are always objections and concerns from some.

However, if the technology works, and provides a reasonable level of efficiency, then there are no reasons why such an approach, in general, could not be scaled. There might be significant costs associated with the construction of the facility and deployment in its intended environment; for example, it might derive its input energy in the oceans or underground. Specific technologies might have their own unique challenges.

Environmental impact

The long-term environmental impact of a prospective energy technology should be considered and compared with alternative technologies. One way to do this is to use a Sustainability Scale [51] Consideration needs to be given to the environmental impact arising from pollutants, waste, and land use. Assuming a technology works by extracting ambient energy from the surrounding environment, a significant area of land or volume of sea might need to be occupied. Even with the cleanest energy solutions there are always objections and concerns from some.

None of the technologies seem to use consumables. However, the different technological systems will have to be constructed, which requires some material resources (e.g. steel). The environmental impact will essentially depend on the power-to-weight ratio that can be attained with the different technologies, and of course on the type of raw materials needed.

Risks associated with a prize in this space

Risks are associated with all radical innovations, and that can be due to several factors. A good technology might not succeed in the marketplace due to poor marketing and promotion. The perceived safety and environmental impact of a technology is also important to successful adoption. [52] [53] [54] Concerns might be limited to those associated with land use (or impact in the oceans). Poor implementation of a technology can also prevent successful adoption of a good technology. These are risks that come into effect after the awarding of an energy technology prize, but perhaps the associated challenge can provide post award support to ensure that these risks are reduced. In addition, of course, there can be risks associated with the technical efficacy of the technology itself, and the logistics surrounding its development, operation and decommissioning.

Regenerative motors are proven and used in electric/hybrid vehicles they are only recovering some of the initial energy that was spent. In effect they just make things more energy efficient, but they don't generate energy overall.

Other technologies show great promise.

[Caution: The law of conservation of energy still holds true to date. When considering a complete system, any claims of greater than 100% efficiency should be explored with scientific scrutiny.]

Positive energy tests to evaluate this technology

This is especially crucial for technologies that are as yet untested, or have not yet generated large amounts of verifiable performance data. The conditions to be met to determine the credibility of an Abundant Clean Energy Source include the following for this technology to be considered unequivocally “verified” or “validated.”

  • Device or access to the device with all components revealed.
  • List of components.
  • Schematic diagrams.
  • Electrical connection diagrams.
  • Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)
  • Test results showing input and output measurements
  • Overall system efficiency or COP based on measurements.
  • Measurement procedure used to determine efficiency.
  • List of all test equipment and test equipment specifications. 

If possible, the most creditable testing would involve a university lab.  One such testing session was during the International Symposium of New Energy 1993 (ISNE) at Colorado State University Powerhouse Energy Campus, one of the nation’s top academic laboratories and a showcase of clean energy research and technology. http://source.colostate.edu/place-matters-aplu-award/

Each device tested should be rated on a scale of one to ten on the following or more categories with 10 being the highest.  Total score will place the device relative to other devices and technologies.

  1. Can device output energy to directly tie to the 50 Hz or 60 Hz electrical grids in use worldwide?
  2. Can device be used to directly power electric vehicles including cars, ships, and trains?
  3. Overall output in electrical watts divided by the weight of the machine.
  4. Size in cubic volume.
  5. Cost to build the device.
  6. Dollars/watt cost of the test device.
  7. Expected dollars per watt in volume manufacture.
  8. Independently built and tested, yes = 10, No = 0.
  9. Portability
  10. Can be used for desalination.
  11. Can be used to pump water for irrigation.
  12. Can be used to provide power to field or remote hospitals.
  13. Can be used from arctic to jungle.
  14. Does not rely on an intermediate stage of 19th century energy conversion technology prior to grid connection such as steam generators, heat exchangers, or turbines.

The inputs and outputs for any energy generation process can be represented as shown in the System Representation. The efficiency of the system is represented by the output energy divided by the input energy. Note that all energy inputs should be accounted for, including any internal energy storage within the prototype itself. This internal energy could be in any form, not just electrical or kinetic energy. Using a motor to turn kinetic energy (motion) into electrical energy is not new, it is a widely known and used effect. However, using a device to continuously provide output energy in the absence of a continued input of energy is worthy of scientific scrutiny. To test such devices it should be clear where all the energy inputs are, as shown in the system representation diagram. The external input energy is typically provided as electrical energy or kinetic energy, but if in doubt check if the device is consuming ambient heat energy from the surroundings. Note also that the diagram shows internal energy and this might be very relevant to such devices. In particular, take into account the kinetic energy of the moving masses within the device. Note also that a measurement of total input energy and output energy, instead of power, is useful to avoid misleading results.

Equipment should be available to record input (and output) electrical power and integrate this over time to establish total input energy. Note that if a non-sinusoidal electrical waveform is used as input then special measures might be required to establish the total input energy, i.e. a standard RMS assumption might not be satisfactory in such unusual cases.

If doubts remain over the input energy source then thermal measuring equipment might be required to determine how much (heat) energy is being collected from the surrounding environment, and the prototype itself. One experimental approach could be to thermally isolate the prototype from its environment, and so in that case heat energy could only be extracted from the prototype itself, which would result in a lowering of its temperature.

If the prototype only provides a small amount of output power (a fraction of a Watt) then the possibility of energy harvesting from ambient electromagnetic energy should also be investigated. Alternatively, a minimum output power of at least one Watt could be specified. If the prototype is quite large (several kilograms) then a minimum power of one kilowatt might be more appropriate.

See also some of the techniques suggested in LENR testing.

[Caution: The law of conservation of energy still holds true to date. When considering a complete system, any claims of greater than 100% efficiency should be explored with scientific scrutiny. Also, distinguish between claims of energy generation as opposed to energy recovery. The latter just improves the energy efficiency of a system.]

Classical regeneration systems (<100% efficient)

Provided for reference, these systems do not claim to be primary energy sources, and are therefore not eligible for the Abundant Clean Energy X-Prize. They belong to the category of energy-efficiency measures, which are also very useful.

ROBOTEQ[2] – UNDERSTANDING REGENERATION:

Regeneration refers to the way a motor can function – as either a motor or a generator.  It details the voltage and current planes used by generators (and motors), describes the design of a motor as a four quadrant device, and discusses the energy balance in a moving vehicle in relation to speed, velocity, and inertia.  The article also briefly touches on coasting, dynamic, and regenerative braking, as well as how using a four-quadrant battery for a stationary power supply can be dangerous in regenerative braking. It outlines variable speed electronic motor controllers, and how a motor becomes a generator.  Additionally, it gives more specific detail about how both concurrent and opposing regeneration work, as well as more specific detail about the processes and physics involved in regenerative braking. Lastly, it discusses battery disconnect during regeneration, and how to prevent damage from regeneration with a disconnected battery. An appendix to the calculations involved in sizing a motor is included.

MACHINE BUILDING[55] – REGENERATIVE INVERTER DRIVES:

This article discusses the history of motors and why it seemed smartest to leave them running rather than starting/re-starting often, even though that wasn’t the best for energy consumption. It also explains what regenerative drives are, how they save energy and enable more efficient processes, and specifically their mechanisms for functioning. "“An inverter drive offers even more energy efficiency by optimising the energy used in the electric motor whatever the load, and also by running the process at lower speeds - which can save significant energy and costs.”  It goes on to say that, “The savings gained by using inverters in real terms are both financial and ecological. In fact it has been calculated that the CO2 savings made by the inverters sold in the UK each year relate to the CO2 used by 100,000 business cars doing normal mileage.”

ENERGY & POWER ENGINEERING – THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF BRAKE ENERGY RECOVERY IN INDUSTRIAL LOADS[56]: This journal article discusses research from the Department of Electrical Engineering at TEI (Greece) on “calculating the energy saving amount due to regenerative braking implementation in modern AC and DC drives,” and presents “a theoretical, simulation and experimental investigation on the quantization of energy recovery due to regenerative braking application in industrial rotating loads.”

ASME[57]ENERGY-EFFICIENT ELEVATOR TECHNOLOGIES: This journal article discusses how elevator manufacturers are using new technology control strategies to reduce overall energy usage and increase efficiency.   An example of these new technologies is Otis’ ReGen drive which recycles “energy rather than wasting it as heat”.   The article describes how it works in this way: “When power flows into the motor, it creates a lifting torque on the shaft and elevator sheave, lifting the carriage. When the carriage travels down, the motor acts as a generator, transforming mechanical power into electrical power and pumping current back into the facility’s electrical grid to use elsewhere.”  For more information on the ReGen Drive, see this Spec Sheet from their website.  It details how the technology is a greener solution, how it generates energy savings, how it minimizes harmonic distortion, and how it reduces Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) – all adding up to significant savings both financially and for the environment.

CONTROL ENGINEERING[58] – REGENERATIVE POWER UNITS SAVE ENERGY: This article discusses how various equipment and machines that see frequent runs-and-stops can be engineered using a regenerative power unit, which will save energy.  They cite a figure of one application they tested as saving 54% of typical power usage which resulted in a savings of $1017 over a year.  The article states, “a regenerative power unit provides a significant energy cost saving opportunity, especially in applications that require frequent run and stop, deceleration with high inertia load, and overhauling torque. Such applications include spindle drives, decanter centrifuges, hoists, cranes, elevators, and torque dynamometer test rigs.”

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