Other Technologies

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This page is for discussing technologies or approaches that do not have a dedicated page listed on the Wiki Homepage. Topics with sufficient interest and merit will have dedicated pages created. Some of these inventions and technologies should be replicated and explored further.

Some technologies that most people might be familiar with have been added to this page because they might have the potential to become significant energy sources in the future by simply being scaled up and/or by becoming more effective and efficient as a result of various innovations. These include solar, tidal, wind, wave, thermal gradients in the oceans, and geothermal.

Contents

Renewable Energy

In the quest for abundant clean energy sources, the phrase "renewable energy" often appears.

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.[1] Interestingly, five of these six energy sources are directly, or indirectly, powered by the Sun.

Costs of renewable energy

It is predicted that generation costs for large-scale solar power plants are expected to drop by a massive 57 per cent by 2025, with onshore and offshore wind expected to become 26 and 35 per cent [cheaper] respectively. [2]

Proportion of energy supply

An estimated 147 gigawatts (GW) of renewable power capacity was added in 2015, the largest annual increase ever, while renewable heat capacity increased by around 38 gigawatts-thermal (GWth), and total biofuels production also rose. The power sector experienced its largest annual increase in capacity ever, with significant growth in all regions. Wind and solar PV had record additions for the second consecutive year, accounting for about 77% of new installations, and hydropower represented most of the remainder. The world now adds more renewable power capacity annually than it adds (net) capacity from all fossil fuels combined. By the end of 2015, renewable capacity in place was enough to supply an estimated 23.7% of global electricity, with hydropower providing about 16.6%. [3]

Renewable energy supply for power, heat and transport (for 2015 and 2015) is shown in the following Energy Indicators 2015 table[4].

Renewable energy sources in this wiki

Unconventional renewable energy sources

This lists all entries on the wiki that fall into this category, irrespective of their technical or economic feasibility.

Cosmic background radiation

Cosmic background radiation corresponds the energy of the early Universe, but it now corresponds to a very low temperature (about 270 degrees Celsius below zero, or about 3 K). [5] [6]

At least one researcher seems to be looking to somehow capture cosmic background radiation. His invention "relates to the use of isothermal radiation of the universe to produce alternative energy on Earth. More particularly, it relates to the use of the cosmic background heat radiation of the universe to produce electricity."

  • (Juchnowycz, 2010) US 8164308 B2[7] Apparatus and method for capturing cosmic background radiation and converting the same to electricity There is provided an apparatus for capturing cosmic background radiation and for converting cosmic background radiation into electricity. An antenna is configured so as to capture cosmic background radiation. An electrostatic electron multiplier is connected to the antenna. A high voltage power supply is connected to the electrostatic electron multiplier whereby cosmic background radiation is converted to electricity.

Cosmic background radiation [8] could be seen in the noise of un-tuned old analog TV sets, having been amplified by the UHF amplifier. However, using an energy source at -270 Celsius does not seem to be the best choice of energy sources available, given that we have much hotter candidates available. Also, given that a typical thermodynamic engine derives energy by extracting energy from a hot source and passing the rest to a colder source, the corresponding low temperature of cosmic background radiation presents a challenge - as that's one of the coldest sources available. There seems to be no obvious opportunity to extract useful quantities of energy from this.

Ambient background radiation (non-cosmic)

The harvesting of energy from electromagnetic radiation (e.g. radio waves) typically collects low levels of power (e.g. fractions of a Watt, measured in milliwatts or microwatts) [9] [10] but it has potential to be useful within the huge forthcoming sector known as the Internet of Things (IoT). [11] In the future, literally billions of devices will be connected to the Internet, of which a significant proportion will be sensors monitoring ambient environmental conditions (e.g. pollution and weather), traffic flows, human physiology and health, structural and system integrity, system performance, etc. If something can be measured then expect someone to monitor it with the IoT. So within that context it has significance; but less so within a quest for abundant energy.

Note: There are related topics that use much higher levels of power:

  • magnetic induction to charge devices, and
  • heat saucepans on the hob; and
  • wireless transmission of power.

Efforts are underway to capture radio-frequency energy from ambient broadcast sources, especially in urban environments. These devices are especially useful as a stand-in for batteries in low-power applications (especially where solar+rechargeables are not feasible), to help offset the need to manufacture, install, replace, and dispose of batteries. The amount of power extractable is proportional to the cross-sectional area and number of loops used in an antenna, as well as the efficiency of the circuit. When used in e.g. corners, the power can be increased through simple reflectors.[12] Devices to harvest this power are commercially available and even with limited efficiency, there are projected to be close to 100 million such devices installed in the next several years. This is part of a rapidly growing field of energy harvesting[13]

Startup Teratonix, LLC in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania[14], led by Yi Luo and Ivan Pistsov, is working to commercialize this technology.[15][16][17][18] Their key technology advantages include a newly patented high-speed diode and hot-electron transistor, as well as a pending patent for a method of manufacturing the diode[19]. These technologies permit energy to be harvested across a much wider band of frequencies, including higher-end frequencies, at a much higher efficiency than previously possible[20].

In London, Lord Drayson's startup Freevolt[21] is also working to commercialize it, demonstrating e.g. enough power in an auditorium to power a loudspeaker,[22] also with patent-pending technologies.

Ambient Heat / Entropy / Second Law Devices (SLD)

The physics topic of thermodynamics has a number of laws that are often quoted, but less well understood. After conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics [23] is quoted often. Both of these laws are generally considered as proven across the scientific community, and any claimed anomalies warrant scientific scrutiny. However, having said that collecting ambient energy from the environment is a viable and proven technique (generally); the scrutiny is reserved for technologies that claim to break the laws of physics.

What would it mean if the second law could be broken in an economically viable manner? Simply put, it could revolutionize energy production and usage worldwide. We are surrounded by a virtually limitless sea of energy: thermal energy (heat). The total thermal energy content of the Earth’s atmosphere, ocean, and upper crust is about 10,000 times greater than all the known fossil fuel and fission energy reserves. At home, a SLD power generator might consist of a tube about the size of a coffee can. On one end could be a fan to draw the air through the tube over a series of baffles—like a radiator—packed with dozens of thin SLD panels. The SLDs convert atmospheric heat into electricity, some of which powers the fan, but the vast majority of which is available to run household appliances and utilities.[24]

Note that the laws of thermodynamics do not have to be broken to harness the vast reserves of ambient energy referred to above (e.g. oceans and geothermal).

Daniel Sheehan epicatalysis

Daniel Sheehan, PhD is a Professor of Physics at the University of San Diego. With his company Paradigm Energy Research Corporation[25], he seeks to develop epicatalysis into a commercial source of energy. In his latest paper he states, "Here at the University of San Diego, my students and I have pursued about a half-dozen second law challenges over the past 25 years, including ones involving plasma, chemical, gravitational, biological, and solid state physics. Laboratory experiments have corroborated key mechanisms upon which they depend. These culminated in 2012–13 with a series of laboratory experiments that showed true second law breakdown."[26]

  • (Sheehan, 2014) US 9212828 B2[27] Epicatalytic thermal diode An Epicatalytic Thermal Diode (ETD) spontaneously: i) creates and maintains a temperature difference between two separated surfaces of the ETD; and ii) mediates efficient steady-state heat flow across the ETD, in the direction of (i.e., up) the temperature gradient. In one aspect, the structure of the ETD thermomechanically and chemically optimizes both the creation and maintenance of the temperature gradient and the flow of heat.

Sanjay Amin

A few years ago, inventor Sanjay Amin claimed to have invented a device of this sort, and raised more than 3 mln$ to set up his company, Entropy Systems Inc.[28]

  • (Amin, 1996) US 5765387 A[29] Device and method for thermal transfer using air as the working medium A method is disclosed for generating a thermal difference in a working medium between an inlet and an outlet of an enclosure and transferring the thermal difference to a region being cooled. The working medium is drawn into the enclosure through the inlet. A force is applied to compress the working medium in the enclosure with decreasing entropy in the working medium and with an input of work to the working medium. The working medium is allowed to expand through the outlet with a change in entropy between zero and no greater than the magnitude of the decrease in entropy during the step of compression and with an output of work from the working medium equal to or greater than the work input to the working medium in the step of compression. Thereby, a thermal difference is caused in the working medium between the inlet and the outlet. The thermal difference is transferred to the region being cooled. An advantage of the method is a more efficient means of generating a thermal difference in a working medium.

Aesop Institute

"A Ford engine provided a Proof-of-Concept. It ran without fuel on atmospheric heat."[30]

Kenneth M. Rauen

(Rauen, 2004) Patent US 6698200 B1[31] A novel thermodynamic engines including a piston operating on a compressible fluid in a thermally insulated volume, which also includes a movable displacer which selectively divides the internal volume between a warm and a cold side, and a regenerator through which the fluid from the selectively divided volume passes and transfer its heat to or receives heat from, wherein the piston and displacer are each periodically moved in various complex motions according to the present invention to provide efficiency higher than Carnot efficiency. The resulting novel structures and methods, generally referred to as "Superclassical Cycle" engines, incorporate constant volume cooling and aspects of the "Proell Effect" (relative to cooling) to achieve improved efficiencies wherein the gas temperature on the cold side of a fluid displacer is below the lowest regenerator temperature due to "self-refrigeration." Thus according to the apparatus and methods according to the present invention, the traditional principals of the Second Law is further refined and higher operating efficiencies achieved.

Temperature Below Absolute Zero (Kelvin)

Physicists at the Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching have now created an atomic gas in the laboratory that nonetheless has negative Kelvin values. These negative absolute temperatures have several apparently absurd consequences: Although the atoms in the gas attract each other and give rise to a negative pressure, the gas does not collapse—a behavior that is also postulated for dark energy in cosmology. Supposedly impossible heat engines such as a combustion engine with a thermodynamic efficiency of over 100% can also be realised with the help of negative absolute temperatures.[32]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface seawaters to run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of electricity.[33] In terms of abundance, the university of Delft estimates that "seventy percent of all sunlight received by the Earth shines on the oceans. The larger part of this sunlight is captured as heat in the upper layers of the oceans. Therefore, the oceans are by far the biggest solar collectors on Earth. If we could utilize a mere fraction of this energy, we would have a limitless, renewable, baseload source that can provide enough energy to cover our global energy need."[34]

There is a video[35] that explains this, and talks about using the energy to produce clean water, in addition to electricity.

Bluerise

Dutch company Bluerise "develops solutions to harness the Ocean’s power.  Bluerise is a technology provider and project developer of Ocean Thermal Energy solutions. The thermal energy stored in the tropical ocean can be used to generate sustainable electricity, cooling, and fresh water.We specialize in OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion), SWAC (Seawater Air Conditioning) technologies and related Deep Sea Water applications."[36]

Breakthrough Energy Coalition

The billionaire backed Breakthrough Energy Coalition, according to their landscape page, lists both ocean tidal and ocean thermal systems as part of the worthy future in future energy.[37]

Ambient Energy in the Air

A patent exists for an high altitude airship that collects thermal energy: [38] A new High Altitude Airship (HAA) capable of various extended applications and mission scenarios utilizing inventive onboard energy harvesting and power distribution systems. The power technology comprises an advanced thermoelectric (ATE) thermal energy conversion system. The high efficiency of multiple stages of ATE materials in a tandem mode, each suited for best performance within a particular temperature range, permits the ATE system to generate a high quantity of harvested energy for the extended mission scenarios. When the figure of merit 5 is considered, the cascaded efficiency of the three-stage ATE system approaches an efficiency greater than 60 percent.

Capacitive Discharge Motors

It may be possible to increase the efficiency of a motor by innovative approaches, but claims of greater than unity energy output (for the entire system) require scientific scrutiny. The inputs for any energy generation process can be represented as shown in the System Representation. [39] The efficiency of the system is represented by the output energy divided by the input energy. Note that all energy inputs should be accounted for, including any internal energy storage within the prototype itself. This internal energy could be in any form, not just electrical energy. In the case of the following devices the purpose might be to attempt to optimise the internal workings of the energy system (the motor), with the aim to increase its efficiency. However, a comparison of all energy inputs with energy output will show a prototype's efficacy in the role of a net energy generator. Typically, motors just consume energy (although regenerative motors can be used to recover some potentially lost energy).

Edwin V. Gray

Capacitive Discharge Motors have the potential for over unity operation. One of the most famous was built by Edwin V. Gray in the 1970's.[40] These motors may rely on election avalanche as discovered by  [/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John%20Sealy%20Townsend John Sealy Townsend], who discovered the mechanism during his work between 1897 and 1901[41].

Gray Motor Report

The Gray Motor is an electric motor similar to all motors that rotate when electric potential (voltage) is applied and current flows through coils of wire configured to be electromagnets.  The resulting magnetic fields exert a force on a rotor, which causes rotation.

The salient feature of the Gray Motor is that the current flowing to the electromagnets first passes through a spark gap. This requires the use of a transformer and capacitors to store the energy prior to being released thorough the spark gap.

Another key feature of the Gray Motor is the use of circuitry to capture the energy contained in the collapsing magnetic fields after those fields have provided the energy needed to cause the motor shaft to rotate.  This energy is then recycled to a battery. 

The patent for the Gray Motor, 3,890,548 does not explicitly detail what is revealed through a reading of two patents issued to Gray ten years later.  The two subsequent patents, 4,595,975 and 4,661,747 are the same line for line except for the claims at the end of the patents.  Both patents describe a tube, which is called an “electrical conversion switching element tube.”   The tube is a refined spark gap used in the patent to drive an inductive load. Inductive loads are present in all motors; they are the coils of wire that make up the electromagnets.  Again, as in the first patent, after energizing the load, the energy in the circuit is recycled back to storage batteries.

There is an obvious relationship between the first and the later two patents.  Both make use of spark gaps and provide for recycling energy.  The reason for the spark gaps and the need to recycle the energy in the system may be explained by the work of Loeb and Meek in The Mechanism of the Electric Spark, published by Stanford University Press in 1941.  In this study it is proposed that there is a multiplication of electrons “by a large factor” in the arc.  Since electrons are what make up a flow of current, it may be that the sparks gaps in the Gray Motor and in the circuits in the subsequent patents result in current amplification or the addition of extra energy to the circuits. This energy can than be used to charge batteries or to do extra work.  If this is the case, it was wise of Gray when writing the patents not to speak to the phenomenon of excess energy.  Such a claim might have made it much more difficult to obtain a patent even though a new and novel method of achieving rotary motion was being presented.

In order to extract additional energy from a spark discharge circuit, a means to harvest the electrons created during the spark must be devised.  In a normal circuit ohms law yields a conservation of energy.  The power delivered by a source is the sum total of the power dissipated by the resistances or the load the circuit presents to the source. If the Gray Motor tested over unity, it may be that the electron harvest was due to the circuit configuration in the first patent, and the unique electrical conversion switching element tube fully described in the second two patents.  It is also interesting to note that Shuiji Inomata of the Electro-Technical Institute in Japan reported that high voltage charging of batteries yielded a battery with a capacity that exceeded the input charge.  This phenomenon may also be at work in the Gray Motor.

The role of electrons in plasma or during electrical discharges has received attention recently. The charge cluster work of Ken Shoulders and the plethora of cold fusion researchers who have noted low energy nuclear changes (elemental transmutation) in their experiments also points to the possibility that high energy discharges (electrons) can result in the coupling of energy into a system. These effects have not been considered in academic or industrial circles to date.

The electron amplification may also have contributed to the increased efficiency we measured in the Lambertson E-Dam Lamp circuit. This was a circuit that used 10 KHz high voltage pulses in a mercury vapor lamp circuit.

The Swiss ML Converter operates in open air at high voltages with corona discharges.  It may be that the current amplification phenomenon may also be at work in this machine

After all the years since Gray demonstrated his motor (rumor has it - once on the Johnny Carson Show) it has been located and is in Vancouver, BC.  Al Francouer is in possession of  the motor and may be contacted at 250-487-1164.  Peter Lindeman has also researched the history and I have been told he has made a video explaining the motor but I do not have any other details at this time

There is also a great deal of information available on web sites by experimenter Gary Magratten ph. 707-459-1435, [/www.fortunecity.com/greenfield/bp/16/grayreproduction.htm http://www.fortunecity.com/greenfield/bp/16/grayreproduction.htm] and [/www.pmpempmg.com/ www.pmpempmg.com]

See also:

Combine, James Dillon, Gaseous Conductors - Theory and Engineering Applications, McGraw Hill, 1941.

Penning, F.M., Electrical Discharges In Gases, MacMillan Company, NY, Phillips Technical Library, 1957.

Loeb and Meek in The Mechanism of the Electric Spark, published by Stanford University Press in 1941. 

Toby Grotz

2/7/05

Caution is advised on this topic as sparks generally lose energy, and capacitors simply store (not magnify) energy.

Osamu Ide

Osamu Ide reported on an electrical anomaly in a report in the Journal of Applied Physics in an article titled Increased voltage phenomenon in a resonance circuit of unconventional magnetic configuration[42]. It has been postulated that this could produce an over unity motor.[43]

Paul Bauman

The Testatika Generator built by Paul Bauman was a free running high voltage discharge motor/generator. Stefan Marinov[44] told this author (Grotz) that under load, the rotational speed did not decrease leading him to believe that the machine was a valid over unity device.

An analysis of the physics of an arc or electric spark was presented by Loeb and Meek in The Mechanism of the Electric Spark, published by Stanford University Press in 1941. The significance of this work is that it indicates that any invention, device, or system that includes a discharge in the form of arc or plasma, may be dragging energy into the circuit from the ambient environment or material. [Caution might be required with such assumptions, as typically a spark will lose energy into the environment in the form of radiated electromagnetic radiation and heat.] This phenomenon includes the devices above and also may apply to cold fusion systems.

Earth Rotation, Gravity & Aether Motors

Bessler's Wheel

Bessler's Wheel is possibly the oldest know perpetual motion machine dating to 1712. It was Invented and demonstrated by Johann Ernst Bessler, also known by the pseudonym Orffyreus. The inventor demonstrated the operation of his wheel before various audiences, always taking care that the mechanism within the wheel should remain hidden from view, purportedly to prevent others from stealing his invention. The wheel was examined externally by several scientists, including [/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem%20's%20Gravesande Willem 's Gravesande], professor of mathematics and astronomy at [/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leiden%20University Leiden University], who reported that he could not detect any fraud regarding its operation. On November 12, 1717, the wheel was locked in a room in the castle with the doors and windows sealed to prevent any interference. This was witnessed by the Landgrave and various officials. Two weeks later, the seals were broken and the room was opened, whereupon the wheel was found to be revolving. The door was resealed until January 4, 1718. The wheel was then found to be turning at twenty-six revolutions per minute.[/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann%20Bessler#cite%20note-Gould-3 [3]][45]

Caution is advised on all perpetual motion machines. We know that perpetual motion happens - it does not break the laws of physics, in fact it is one of Newton's Laws of Motion [46]. However, this is completely different to claiming that a perpetual motion machine can provide unlimited sources of energy. Scientific scrutiny would be required to validate such claims.

Reidar Finsrud

Reider Finsrud seems to have mastered the age old search for a perpetual motion machine. From the website, it appears that "It is the first working perpetuum mobile in human history! "[47] Reidar says that "If we repel or expand from a diallel - towards the center - array of magnets and counter that force with the contraction or attraction of gravity driven magnets, then we can make a motor run given a cyclic setup containing a vibrating feedback loop.”

Caution is advised on all perpetual motion machines. We know that perpetual motion happens - it does not break the laws of physics, in fact it is one of Newton's Laws of Motion. However, this is completely different to claiming that a perpetual motion machine can provide unlimited sources of energy. Scientific scrutiny would be required to validate such claims.

Douglas Buerger

An old reference to this at http://www.padrak.com/ine/ but further information is needed. [Cannot find a reference to this on the page provided - can the author of this entry elaborate?]

"If we repel or expand from a diallel - towards the center - array of magnets and counter that force with the contraction or attraction of gravity driven magnets, then we can make a motor run given a cyclic setup containing a vibrating feedback loop.”

Wilbert Smith Gravity Manipulation Experiment

Wilbert Smith[48] was a Senior Radio Engineer at the Canadian Department of Transport and was responsible for AM/FM frequency allotment in Canada.[49] Smith built and demonstrated gravity control using a disc of spinning magnets.

The experiment consisted of a ring of ceramic magnets set in a mount so the whole could be rotated at a fairly high speed, about 12,000 rpm. The ring of magnets was about an inch wide, an inch thick, and about 6 inches in diameter. The magnet strength was about 2000 gauss. There was no doubt about the artificial gravity which was generated by this unit as it could easily be weighed on a precision balance and under certain conditions could be "felt". However, due to the configurations involved, numerical values were hard to obtain as displacement of the sensing bob altered the point of observation, but weight differentials of about 1% were observed several times. [50]

Photos of the device are here:

http://www.treurniet.ca/Smith/RotorPics.htm

Project Greenglow

British Aerospace has confirmed it has launched a research programme - codenamed Project Greenglow - to study 'the possibility of the control of gravitational fields'.[51]

What is Aether/Ether?

Tesla believed light was a wave through a medium called: aether or ether.[52] The John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Forum has an ongoing discussion about aether.[53]

The Michelson-Morley experiment [54] became what might be regarded as the most famous failed experiment to date and is generally considered to be the first strong evidence against the existence of the luminiferous ether. The experiment is recognized as failure to detect the ether but not recognized as proof the ether does not exist.[55]

Electrogravitics / Electrokinetics & Anti-Gravity

Electrogravitics is a hypothesis and term that got widespread use by 1956. The effects of electrogravity have been searched for extensively in countless experiments since the beginning of the 20th century. To date, experiments have been reported by R. L. Talley, Eugene Podkletnov, and Giovanni Modanese, but "no conclusive evidence of electrogravitic signatures has been found". Recently, some investigation has begun in electrohydrodynamics (EHD) or sometimes electro-fluid-dynamics, a counterpart to the well-known magnetohydrodynamics, but these do not seem a priori to be related to "electrogravitics".

Electrokinetics is a term used by Thomas Townsend Brown for the electrically generated propulsive force.

The Biefeld–Brown effect was initially investigated by Thomas Townsend Brown (USA) and Dr. Paul Alfred Biefeld (Germany) in the 1920s. Research continued through the 1950s and 1960s by Brown and other researchers. The use of this electrogravitic propulsion effect was further explored during the publicized era of gravity control propulsion research, which included the United States gravity control propulsion initiative. Research, based upon Thomas Townsend Brown's hypotheses, includes the idea that electrogravitics could be used as a means of propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Electrogravitic processes use an electric field to charge or, more properly, polarize an object with a specially-constructed shape. Brown's disks, for example, used an "asymmetrical" capacitor, sketches of which can be found in the literature pertaining to the Biefeld–Brown effect.[56]

Researchers

Nikola Tesla

Tesla's "Flying Machine of the Future"
"The flying machine of the future - my flying machine - will be heavier than air, but it will not be an aeroplane. It will have no wings. It will be substantial, solid, stable. You cannot have a stable aeroplane. The gyroscope can never be successfully applied to the aeroplane, for it would five a stability that would result in the machine being torn to pieces by the wind, just as the unprotected aeroplane on the ground is torn to pieces by a high wind. My flying machine will have neither wings nor propellers. You might see it on the ground, and you would never guess that it was a flying machine. Yet it will be able to move at will through the air in any direction with perfect safety, higher speeds than have yet been reached, regardless of weather/and oblivious of 'holes in the air' or downward currents. It will ascend in such currents if desired. It can remain absolutely stationary in the air even in a wind for a great length of time. Its lifting power will not depend upon any such delicate devices as the bid has to employ, but upon positive mechanical action." - Nikola Tesla in the New York Herald October 15, 1911 - Tesla's New Monarch Of Mechanics: Tesla's Revolutionary Invention, A Perfect Rotary Engine[57]

World War II Germany

(difficult subject matter for primary citations, but even as folklore 'Nazi flying saucers' are worth documenting)

The Thule and Vril experimented with the disc machine for two years.  By 1922, parts for the disc machine began arriving independently from various industrial sources paid in full by the Thule and Vril Gesellschafts, at which time it was constructed in secret in a barn in Munich, and rolled out into a field for channeled flight testing.

Under the code letters J-F-M (Jenseitsflugmaschine), Professor Winfried Otto Schumann led the JFM project but decided to scrap all research in 1924 after he had developed the SM-Levitator unit. The JFM was hurriedly dismantled and the pieces sent to Augsburg for storage at Messerscmitt's facility where it was either destroyed or later moved up to Peenemunde and reassembled for further study.

This work aroused great interest from Hitler, Himmler, and Goering. With the Nazi Party in power in 1933 Thule and Vril were given official backing to continue the disc development plans.

By 1935 Thule had joined with Himmler's SS technical branch unit E-IV (Entwicklunsstelle 4), tasked with developing alternate energies and started working on a large flight disc under the code name H-Great (H-Device). The "H" stood for the remote location where the disc was being constructed - in Hauneburg.

In 1937 the occult Vril Gesellschaft (Society) began its continued disc development program with official Nazi Party backing under Professor Schumann of the Technical University of Munich who worked on the JFM (Jenseitsflugmachine) from 1922-1924.  The Vril purchased the fallow land around the Arado Brandenburg aircraft plant and begin to develop a series of RFZ (Rundflugzeug, Round Aircraft) that utilized Professor Schumann's SM-Levitator. Tests with these craft continued until 1939 when Thule and the SS E-IV unit create a working EMG (Electro-Magnetic-Gravitic) engine named the Thule Triebwerk (Thrustwork) and moved from Hauneburg to Arado Brandenburg. The device H-Gerat was then briefly included with Vril's RFZ series as RFZ-5 until war broke out. RFZ-5 then became Haunebu I, also known as the Nazi Bell.[58][59][60][61][62][63][64]

Schumann Resonances

The first documented observations of global electromagnetic resonance were made by Nikola Tesla at his Colorado Springs laboratory in 1899. This observation led to certain conclusions about the electrical properties of the Earth, and which made the basis for his idea for wireless energy transmission.

Tesla researched ways to transmit power and energy wirelessly over long distances (via transverse waves and longitudinal waves). He transmitted extremely low frequencies through the ground as well as between the Earth’s surface and the Kennelly-Heaviside layer. He received patents on wireless transceivers that developed standing waves by this method. Making mathematical calculations based on his experiments, Tesla discovered that the resonant frequency of the Earth was approximately 8 hertz (Hz). In the 1950s, researchers confirmed that the resonant frequency of the Earth’s ionospheric cavity was in this range (later named the Schumann resonance).

Hence the first suggestion that an ionosphere existed, capable of trapping electromagnetic waves, is attributed to Heaviside and Kennelly (1902). It took another twenty years before Edward Appleton and Barnett in 1925, were able to prove experimentally the existence of the ionosphere.

Although some of the most important mathematical tools for dealing with spherical waveguides were developed by G. N. Watson in 1918, it was Winfried Otto Schumann who first studied the theoretical aspects of the global resonances of the earth–ionosphere waveguide system, known today as the Schumann resonances.[65]

The Schumann Resonance is a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF[66]) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonance is due to the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acting as a wave guide. The limited dimensions of the Earth cause this wave guide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves in the ELF band. The cavity is naturally excited by energy from lightning strikes. The lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance is at a frequency of approximately 7.83 Hz. Additional resonant peaks are found at 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hz.[67][68]

A good visual illustration of the Schumann Resonance can be found here.

Dr. Hans Nieper

Dr. Hans Nieper (1928-1998) was President of the German Association of Gravity Field Energy (Hanover, Germany and Huntsville, Alabama, US) and also involved with organizations like the German Association for Vacuum Field Energy[69] . Nieper's book Conversion of Gravity Field Energy led to the 1st German Symposium of Gravitational Field Energy, which was so well attended, it lead to the 1st and 2nd (ISONCET) conferences in 1981 and 1983, both chaired by George Hathaway.[70] Napier is more well known for his alternative treatments for cancer and other serious diseases, however this work has been attacked as quackery directly by the FDA[71]. Napier's early pioneering work in the field of 'free energy' is totally ignored on his Wikipedia page, a link to quackery placeholds where this work should be documented.[72]o Dr. Neiper wrote Revolution in Science, Technology and Medice[73]. where he cites Bruce DePalma, Thomas Beardon, Henry Moray and others.

Bruce DePalma

Bruce DePalma’s (1935-1997) primary contribution to Science is the discovery that “Inertia is not a property of Mass. Inertia is a property of Space, and Space confers its Inertia on the Masses that occupy it”. He further discovered that the Inertial Field of Space can be polarized simply by rotating an object.[74]

Bruce DePalma wrote in April 1990, "A parallel programme of Space Power Generators (SPG) has been taking place in India since 1978. Paramahamsa Tewari (see Tewari's work in the Reactionless Generator section of this wiki) of the Indian Atomic Board had developed a generalized theory of matter and energy which showed that energy could be developed from the vacuum by positing a structure for electron. Having received the experimental results of the "Sunburst" machine he instituted an R&D programme to develop practical versions of the SPG for general use. Tewari has constructed N-Machine/SPG apparatus which produces excess output power over that required to rotate the generator when all losses have been subtracted from the output generated power"

The German Association Of Gravity Field Energy invited DePalma to an International Conference held at Hannover in 1987 to deliver a lecture on his research on "Space Power Generation" and awarded the First Prize for the demonstration of a working model of SPG. Also, on his new field of research, many papers by the writer have been published in the Proceedings of the International Conferences in USA and Italy where he was invited to deliver talks.[75]

More of DePalma's research can be found in his paper titled Secret of the Faraday Disc[76]. and via his website.

Bruce DePalma's Wikipedia Page was deleted in 2009, the deletion page explanation starts with "This bio of a quack inventor..."[77]

Commentary on the death of Bruce DePalma by Toby Grotz in 1997: "As close as you can get in print to the real story of dePalma and the N-machine is told in a book by Tom Valone in a chapter called "The Real Story of the N-Machine[78]".  Tom knows a lot more about it than what he wrote down. Bruce inspired many researchers in the field of free energy during his life. Tewari credits him for providing the impetus to refine his 1977 hypothesis constructing the universe of matter and the medium of space with a single mobile entity (fluid substance) and with spurring him on to develop a new series of N-Machine designs.  The Kahn-Trombly design and research efforts followed the work of dePalma. (For the record, there is no evidence that the Kahn-Trombly device was ever tested over unity.)The mystique and enigma that encircled the life of Bruce dePalma was due in part to the fact that he was never able to prove his theories with a working over unity device.  The last machine he built in New Zealand was thoroughly tested and the output was found to be less than unity.  The complete test report is available from the Institute for new Energy c/o Hal Fox, PO Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT 84158-8639."[79]
SunBurst Homopolar Generator

The N-Generator (The "N" Machine Extraction of Electrical Energy Directly from Space[80][81]) has been further developed in the USA by De Palma, Trombly and Kahn[82] who could generate about 45 Kw of power with an input of only 9 Kw, thus getting an incremental power ratio of output further to input, about 5. Bruce De Palma is also further developing his N- generator, trying to achieve perpetual motion. He is quite close to success. NEEDS EDITING. THIS SECTION CONFUSES de PALMA'S N-MACHINE WITH TEWARI'S SPAGE POWER GENERATOR AND REFERS TO A CONFERENCE TO BE HELD IN GERMANY WHICH ALREADY HAPPENED 30 YEARS AGO . The model of space power generator built at Tarapur Atomic Power Station for demonstration of the new principle gave an incremental power ratio of output to input about 2.5. This machine is proposed to be taken to West Germany for demonstration at Hannover in an International Conference for Gravity Field Energy, that will be held there in mid-March 1987. From letters received from USA, West Germany and many other countries, it is evident that the 'over-unity' system which is the name given to space power generation, is catching attention of world scientists and engineers. Being an entirely new technology, it has presently some controversy too associated with its development, especially in USA. The proposed conference at Hannover being organised by Dr Hans Nieper, President, German Association of Gravity Field Energy, West Germany, Hannover, to which I have been invited to deliver a talk on 'Space Vortex Theory' will hopefully be an interesting forum to discuss with scientists and engineers, the new and novel phenomenon of Space Power generation.[83] A 1986 report from Robert Kincheloe Professor of Electrical Engineering (emeritus) at Stanford University concluded after studying DePalma's Sunburst Homopolar Generator: "While it did not perform as claimed, repeatable data showed anamolous results that did not seem to conform to traditional theory."[84](page 171)

Otis T. Carr

Otis Carr patented a flying saucer, and asserted he was working on a full-size version which could fly to the moon and return in less than a day, and which used two counter-rotating metal plates, spinning electromagnets and large capacitors, which when spinning charged and powered by a battery, which became "activated by the energy of space." Carr's scheme resembles slightly earlier proposals by John Searl and [/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T.%20T.%20Brown T. T. Brown]. During demonstrations Carr's device, when put into operation, could do little more than sit there and hum, either loudly or softly depending on the care with which it is assembled. In practice, Carr didn't usually manage to demonstrate a hum, or even a vibration. Carr also claimed to have invented "The Gravity Electric Generator," "The Utron Electric battery," "The Carrotto Gravity Motor," and "The Photon Gun."[85]

Eugene Podletnov

Eugene Ploletnov is known for his claims made in the 1990s of designing and demonstrating [/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity%20shielding gravity shielding] devices consisting of rotating discs constructed from [/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-temperature%20superconductivity ceramic superconducting] materials.[86] An interview with Eugene Podletnov provided by AAG (American Anti-gravity) can be listened to here.

John Searle

John Searle has made the claim that he invented neodymium magnets years before General Motors and Sumimoto Special Metals[87] and used them in a device that shot into space due to an anti gravity effect. For decades, John Searl has claimed that the Searl Effect Generator (SEG) he invented is a self-powering free-energy generator capable of producing both free energy and powerful antigravity effects. Unfortunately, building a Searl Effect Generator is a costly, difficult process that’s left Searl’s claims unverified.[88][89] Searl actually claimed to have built a Inverse Gravity Vehicle (IGV) using the SEG technology.[90]

Pierre Sinclaire

Pierre Sinclaire attempted to continue the work of David Hamel's antigravity research[91] known as The Hamel Flying Disc, aka the Poor Man's Searl Disc.[92] Jeane Manning's[93] book based on David Hamel's life chronicles both the emotional and technical struggles David encountered in developing his prototypes of the GMD (Gravito-Magentic Device). A candid account of the life of a simple man with an extraordinary mission. The Granite Man and the Butterflychronicles the life of a simple man who was chosen for a heroic task. David was given advanced information enabling him to build a spacecraft that would provide an abundant source of non-polluting energy. This book chronicles the frustration and enormous obstacles that he faced, from non-believers to government officials. This story details his progress from the past to the present, on this amazing mission and the effort being made to realize his goal. For the past six years Pierre has been working with David Hamel in an effort to duplicate the device that lifted off from Mr. Hamel's yard in Maple Ridge, BC. Canada, in 1977. Also included, is an appendix on Canadian engineer Wilbert Smith. Mr. Smith was one of the first engineers to work with the government in researching unusual properties within magnetic fields.[94]

Kowsky-Frost Quartz Levitation

Quartz Crystals Charged by High Frequency Current Lose their Weight - Although some remarkable achievements have been made with shortwave low power transmitters, radio experts and amateurs have recently decided that short-wave transmission had reached its ultimate and that no vital improvement would be made in this line. A short time ago, however, two young European experimenters working with ultra short-waves, have made a discovery that promises to be of primary importance to the scientific world.[95]

The Nikola Tesla Institute in Brasilia

John Hutchison

  • The Hutchison Effect captured on film by George Hathaway who also reproduced the experiments with two Van de Graffs and a Tesla Coil, levitating a 20 lb vise, along the lighter objects, reported at the Third ISONCET.[96](page 90)
  • More links[97][98][99]

America Antigravity

Intellectual Property

The United States Patent Office uses the clasification class 310 (Electrical generator or motor structure) and subclass 178 (Dynamoelectric; Rotary; D.C.; Homopolar) for these devices. Many of the homopolar patents were obtained prior to 1975. Below is a list of homopolar generator patents.[100]

Homopolar Generator Patents
  • US 5587618 A(George Hathaway) - Direct current homopolar machine
  • US 5530309 A (William. F. Weldon) - Homopolar machine
  • US 5049771 A (Antonios Challita) - Electrical machine
  • US 4858304 A (William. F. Weldon) - Method of constructing a rotor assembly for homopolar generator
  • US 400311 A (William. F. Weldon) - Rotor assembly for homopolar generator
  • US4544874 A (William. F. Weldon) - Homopolar generator power supply system
  • US 4246507 A (William. F. Weldon) - Removable brush mechanism for a homopolar generator
  • US3469137 A (Esko Ensio hubta-Koivisto) - Electric unipolar motor
  • US1082579 A (Ernest. C. Ketchum and David H. Andrews) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US992965 A (Albert Kingsbury) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US992943 A (William A Dick) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US988377 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US988340 A (Hjalmar Hertz) - Unipolar exciter for turbo-generators
  • US979603 A (Daniel W Troy) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US970827 A (Albert S Hubbard) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US970407 A (Boris Von Ugrimoff) - Cooling device for electrical sliding contacts
  • US966839 A (Ernest C Ketchum) - Brush holders for dynamos
  • US960383 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US959959 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US937462 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US920626 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US900771 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Armature for unipolar machines
  • US895888 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Unipolar dynamo electric machine
  • US895887 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Acyclic machine
  • US890697 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Protective device for unipolar machine
  • US881387 A (Arthur C Eastwood) - System of control for electric motors
  • US873072 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US861192 A (Wilhelm Mathiesen) - Unipolar dynamo
  • US859350 A (Elihu Thomson) - Unipolar generator
  • US854756 A (Jacob E Noeggerath) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US854749 A (Campbell Macmillan) Power transmission mechanism
  • US850664 A (Campbell Macmillan) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US832742 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Unipolar alternating current machine
  • US826668 A (Ernest C Ketchum) - Dynamo
  • US873072 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US861192 A (Wilhelm Mathiesen) - Unipolar dynamo
  • US859350 A (Elihu Thomson) - Unipolar generator
  • US854756 A (Jacob E Noeggerath) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US854749 A (Campbell Macmillan) - Power transmission mechanism
  • US850664 A (Campbell Macmillan) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US832742 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Unipolar alternating current machine
  • US826668 A (Ernest C Ketchum) - Dynamo
  • US806217 A (Henry H Wait) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US805315 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Unipolar machine
  • US804440 A (Charles P Steinmetz) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US789444 A (Jakob E Noeggerath) - Electric motor
  • US742600 A (Edwin R Cox Jr) - Dynamo electric machine or motor
  • US678157 A (Bjarni Bjarnason) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US662042 A (Francis W Throop) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US645943 A (Gustaf Dalen, Arthur Hultqvist) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US561803 A (Fritz G. Mayer) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US550464 A (Elihu Thomson) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US523998 A (Gustap Rennerfelt) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US518444 A (H. E. Dikeman) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US515882 A (James Eveleth Maynadier) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US495538 A (Thomas L. Willson) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US406968 A (Nikola Tesla) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US400838 A (Justus B. Entz) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US396149 A (Rudolf Eicivemeyer) - Unipolar dynamo electric machine
  • US354946 A (Elmer A. Speeey) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US352234 A (Btjdolf Eickemeyer) - Electro magnetic and megneto electric machine
  • US351907 A (Eudolp Eickemeyeb) - Device for taking electric currents from or to moving surfaces
  • US351904 A (Budolf Eickemeyee) - Magneto electric and electro magnetic machine
  • US351903 A (Kudolf Eickemeyee) - Magneto electric and electro magnetic machine
  • US351902 A (Magneto Electric) - Magneto electric and electro magnetic machine
  • US342589 A (Rudolf Eickemeyee) - Dynamo electric and electro magnetic machine
  • US342588 A (Rudolf Eiokemeyee) - Dynamo electric and electro magnetic machine
  • US342587 A (Dynamo Electric) - Dynamo electric and electro magnetic machine
  • US342504 A (Magneto Electric) - Magneto electric and electro magnetic machine
  • US341097 A (Sebastian Ziani De Febbanti) - Unipolar dynamo electric machine
  • US339839 A (Charles Batchelor) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US339772 A (Gael Bering) - Unipolar dynamo electric machine
  • US338169 A (Gboege Fobbes) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US293758 A (A. E. G. Lubke) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US278516 A (A. Floyd Del Afield) - Dynamo electric machine
  • US238631 A (Chaeles E. Ball) - Dynamo or magneto-electric machine
Other Patents

US 1974483 Electrostatic motor (1934-09-25)

US 2949550 Electrokinetic apparatus (1960-08-16)

US 3018394 Electrokinetic transducer (1962-01-23)

US 3022430 Electrokinetic generator (1962-02-20)

US 3187206 Electrokinetic apparatus (1965-06-01)

US 3196296 Electric generator (1965-07-20)

US 4013906 Electromagnetic levitation (1977-03-22)

US002912244  Amusement Device (O.T. Carr 1955-01-22)

SN-581514 Anti-gravity device (Palsingh, S. 1995-11-22)

Forces and Energy

Note that a technology that provides a force alone does not necessarily represent an energy source. Energy is derived from the work done when a force moves an object through a distance.

Motor Generator

John Bedini

John Bedini presented a talk at the Tesla Centennial Symposium in 1984[101] in Colorado Springs that catapulted his inventions into the world of alternative energy. The Bedini motor is probably the most famous device in the over unity, free energy community. The diagrams for building the motor were suppled by John for others to reproduce and can be seen here: http://www.keelynet.com/bedmot/bedmot.htm

John W. Ecklin

John Ecklin patented a motor with a flux shielding mechanism. Claims of overunity operation have been made about this machine. The drawings and theory of operation can be found as cited. [102][103]

Reinhard Wirth

This device claims to eliminate the effect of Lenz's Law and output excess energy http://www.overunitybuilder.com/lenzlessquale.html

William G. Stoneburg

William Stoneberg may be the progenitor of the battery charging technology at the core of many devices that have motor-generator and battery charging circuity all connected together. [104]

Kromrey Converter

The Kromrey electromagnetic converter has reportedly reached an efficiency of about 120%. An increase in current flow occurs under short-circuit conditions with no overheating evident. One Kromrey prototype delivered about 700 watts at a speed range of between 600 to 1200 rpm, which is generally slow for these types of m/g units. Larger units had been planned for five to twenty-five KW range which would have been ideal for home power applications. Described by Don Kelly of SEA/US[105] - The Space Energy Association.[106]

Chris Wanlass

Chris Wanlass added a second set of coils adjacent to each of the normal field coils in a new type of motor to avoids back EMF(per Lenz law).The addition of these second coils allows the normal current flow to be unrestricted by the back EMF and thus improve efficiency.[107]

Lawrence Jamison

San Francisco Examiner (Sat., January 3, 1981), p. A6

“Inventor Juices up a 200,000-Mile Car”

Memphis, TN (UPI) --- A Mississippi mechanic claims he has invented an electric car that will run 200,000 miles without gasoline, oil, water or even recharging.

Larry Jamison calls the motor “the Jamison Energizer”. The 65-year old Nettleton, Mississippi man commutes to Memphis seven days a week to labor on his invention, housed in his one-room shop.

Larry Jamison died in 1987. His business associates were L and J Enterprises, Inc., 1299 McLamore St, Memphis, TN; Tele. 901-942-9313; Bill Tunstill, Gen. Mgr.[108]

Jim Watson

Jim Watson was a speaker at the 1984 Tesla Centennial Synposium of sight and demonstrated a large Bedini type motor generator. Subsequent to that demonstration Mr. Watson dropped out of sight and remains anonymous to this day.

In 1984, Jim Watson demonstrated a self-powering 8-kilowatt generator at the 1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium[109] in Colorado Springs. This generator was a modified extension of smaller motors and generators built by [/www.freeenergyplanet.biz/free-energy-devices/side-view-1.html Bedini] over a period of years. At the conference, engineers from the audience were invited to the platform to perform their own independent measurements of the unit, while it was running and powering its load. The engineers directly confirmed that the system was delivering power to the load (as could be seen visually also), and that it was recharging its batteries as well.[110]

Nathan Stubblefield

Stubblefield's observations of natural electrical manifestations led him to consider the taking of "free" electrical energy from the earth. His initial revelation contended that such vast amounts of energy could be used to drive the engineworks of industry. Stubblefield sensed that the ground currents were arriving as electrical waves.[111]

Conservation of Energy

The physics law of the conservation of energy [112] applies throughout the Universe. Energy may be transformed from one type to another, but it is not created nor destroyed. Greater than unity processes are possible - such as a heat pump [113]; but be cautious when seeing such a phrase. Scientific rigour might be required.

The inputs and outputs for any energy generation process can be represented as shown in the System Representation. The efficiency of the system is represented by the output energy divided by the input energy. Note that all energy inputs should be accounted for, including any internal energy storage within the prototype itself. This internal energy could be in any form, not just electrical energy.

Nuclear and or Isotopic

Foreword

The title for this category might not clearly correlate with some of its entries below. So this paragraph provides a brief background to the terms nuclear and isotopic. Nuclear typically refers to the nucleus of the atom, and in the energy context this means processes that liberate energy from a nuclear reaction. The well known nuclear processes are nuclear fusion and nuclear fission: fusion combines nuclei (or protons and neutrons) to form nuclei with more mass, whereas fission splits nuclei into nuclei of lower mass. The fusion of light elements such as Hydrogen, and the fission of heavy elements such as Uranium, can be used to liberate large amounts of energy (per unit mass). A given element can have more than one isotope; the isotope refers to different numbers of neutrons in the element's nucleus; for example Uranium has isotopes [114] such as 235U and 238U, which have a total of 235 and 238 nucleons respectively, of which 92 are protons. Some isotopes are unstable and radioactively decay into another isotope or element, along with the liberation of energy.

Thomas Henry Moray

[[/wiki.energyxprize.herox.com/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DEnergy%20generators%20sourcing%20energy%20from%20a%20Vacuum%20(Zero%20Point%20Energy)%26veaction%3Dedit%26vesection%3D5 edit] | [/wiki.energyxprize.herox.com/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DEnergy%20generators%20sourcing%20energy%20from%20a%20Vacuum%20(Zero%20Point%20Energy)%26action%3Dedit%26section%3D5 edit source]]

During the 1920’s, Thomas Henry Moray (1892-1974) was one of the most talented electronic circuit designers in the emerging field of radio. After hundreds of experiments designed to improve radio reception, Moray discovered a source of energy transmission apparently available everywhere. Using advanced ideas in solid state detectors, he developed a power source that produced 50,000 watts of a cold form of electricity. By the early 1930’s, dozens of people had witnessed demonstrations of this astonishing technology.[/wiki.energyxprize.herox.com/Energy%20generators%20sourcing%20energy%20from%20a%20Vacuum%20(Zero%20Point%20Energy)#cite%20note-7 [7]]

According to Tom Beardon, "In the early 1900's, Dr. T. Henry Moray of Salt Lake City produced his first device to tap energy from the metafrequency oscillations of empty space itself. Eventually Moray was able to produce a free energy device weighing sixty pounds and producing 50,000 watts of electricity for several hours. Ironically, although he demonstrated his device repeatedly to scientists and engineers, Moray was unable to obtain funding to develop the device further into a useable power station that would furnish electrical power on a mass scale."[/wiki.energyxprize.herox.com/Energy%20generators%20sourcing%20energy%20from%20a%20Vacuum%20(Zero%20Point%20Energy)#cite%20note-8 [8]]

RADIANT ENERGY --- The term Moray has used to describe that source of energy coming from the cosmos to earth and radiating from the earth back from whence it came. This is the energy the Moray device captures and could be described as those particles of energy pervading all space. In the evolution of energy and the evolution of matter these particles of matter and energy (one and the same) manifest under certain conditions as pure energy and under others as pure matter. Radiant Energy from the cosmos, like radiant particles of matter, being composed of an infinitesimal quantity whose behaviors are described by mathematical equations similar to those used for describing electrical waves, keeping in mind to differentiate between wavelength and frequency. Radiant Energy is particles of energy, just as light is wavelengths and particles are comparable to the electron and magneton: a ring of negative electricity traveling in a vortex with the speed of light, streams of energy quanta, each quantum having energy and momentum where the electron revolves around the proton at a distance equal to the electron radius.

[Caution: The above description sounds like pseudo science - fiction.]

To summarize: Radiant Energy as herein used is that energy existing in the luminiferous medium of the universe, kinetic and exercised in wave transmission and rendered sensible by conversion of its energy into a detectable frequency. In the final analysis, Radiant Energy is a means of using the energy released by the fissionable reactions taking place in the stellar crucibles of the universe.[115]

In a conversation with Ralph Bergstresser, who as a Captain in the United States Army was tasked with reviewing the work of Tesla with full co-operation with Tesla, Ralph described a meeting with Moray. Both worked at the same company at the time. Moray told Bergstresser that his problem with the radiant energy device was that the capacitors were not stable and he had not solved the problem.[116]

T Henry Moray Books

  • The Sea of Energy in Which the Earth Floats[/wiki.energyxprize.herox.com/Energy%20generators%20sourcing%20energy%20from%20a%20Vacuum%20(Zero%20Point%20Energy)#cite%20note-9 [9]]
  • Beyond the Light-Rays - Explanation of the Oscillations of Radiant Energy[/wiki.energyxprize.herox.com/Energy%20generators%20sourcing%20energy%20from%20a%20Vacuum%20(Zero%20Point%20Energy)#cite%20note-10 [10]]
  • Radiant Energy - For Beyond the Light Rays Lies the Secret of the Universe The Evolution of Energy and Matter[/wiki.energyxprize.herox.com/Energy%20generators%20sourcing%20energy%20from%20a%20Vacuum%20(Zero%20Point%20Energy)#cite%20note-11 [11]]
  • Radiant Energy - For Beyond the Light Rays Lies the Secret of the Universe The Evolution and Transmutation of the Atom[/wiki.energyxprize.herox.com/Energy%20generators%20sourcing%20energy%20from%20a%20Vacuum%20(Zero%20Point%20Energy)#cite%20note-12 [12]]

Robert Gordon Brit

Robert Britt designed a very similar engine to that of Josef Papp, and he was also awarded a US patent for an engine operating on inert gasses. William Lyne remarks that this engine design may be replicated using a Chevy “Monza” 6-cylinder engine or a VolksWagen 4-cylinder engine. The heads are removed and the new heads cast using the “pot metal” used for “pseudo chrome” automotive trim. That alloy contains aluminium, tin, zinc and possibly antimony and is particularly suitable as the insides of the cavities can be polished to the high reflectivity specified in the patents.[117]

Paul Brown

Paul Brown, Nucell, Inc, developed what he called a Resonant Nuclear Batterie a radioisotope electric power system, a scientific breakthrough in nuclear power. The battery utilizes the energy given off by decaying radioactive material, converting it directly into a continuous AC electrical current. Unlike conventional nuclear generating devices, the power cell does not rely on a nuclear reaction or chemical process and does not produce radioactive waste products.

In summary, alpha and beta decay are electrically charged particles expelled from the nucleus at near-light velocities. Any moving charged particle yields a magnetic field, in which energy is stored, that is carried along with it. The absorption of this charged particle causes the magnetic field to collapse and this produces an emf. The energy yielded from this field collapse is enormous and is called the alpha or beta voltaic effect. The resonant nuclear battery is an LCR resonant tank circuit oscillating at its self-resonant frequency with energy contributed by the beta voltaic effect. The energy contributed to the tank, in excess of the circuit losses, must be removed through a high Q transformer impedance matched to the circuit. The result is a means for converting alpha and/or beta decay energy directly and efficiently into electricity, with a life expectancy determined by the half-life of the radioactive fuel used.[118]

Intellectual Property

US 4835433[119] (Brown; Paul M., May 30, 1989) Apparatus for Direct Conversion of Radioactive Decay Energy to Electrical Energy A nuclear battery in which the energy imparted to radioactive decay products during the spontaneous disintegrations of radioactive material is utilized to sustain and amplify the oscillations in a high-Q LC tank circuit is provided. The circuit inductance comprises a coil wound on a core composed of radioactive nuclides connected in series with the primary winding of a power transformer. The core is fabricated from a mixture of three radioactive materials which decay primarily by alpha emission and provides a greater flux of radioactive decay products than the equivalent amount of a single radioactive nuclide.

Joseph Papp

Joseph Papp used a mixture of Nobel gases to power a modified internal combustion engine.

"There exists nearly rock-solid evidence now that Papp really had managed to build a robust engine of over 100 horsepower (75 kilowatts) that was "fueled" by a mixture of, we believe, "pre-treated" noble gases (probably mixed with some air). Though it had no exhaust and no cooling system, it had huge torque even at low RPM[120] During a demonstration in the presence of Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman, the engine exploded killing one observer and severely injuring three others.

Yul Brown

Yul Brown was born in Bulgaria in 1922 and went to Australia in 1958 as an electrical engineer with a deep belief that Jules Verne’s vision that "There is fire in water", could be realized.

Brown promoted a gas welder that was an based on an water based electrolyzer that did not separate oxygen from Hydrogen. There has been much speculation that he produced what is known as mono atomic hydrogen that could result in excess produced in a heretofor unknown process.

Yull Brown was issued a patent on his design of a "Brown's Gas electrolyzer" and spent the rest of his life trying to make Brown's Gas a commercial success. He managed to raise and spent about 30 million dollars over nearly 30 years in this endeavor. The gas, a 2:1 molar mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, is still often referred to in his name.[121]

"Browns Gas" has been used to increase the efficiency of combustion engines.[122]

George Wiseman.

Recent work by George Wiseman has shown that there are other aspects to the gas both inside the electrolyzer that can be viewed during operation and after the gas has been generated. A review of this research and his observatory can be seem here: http://www.eagle-research.com/browngas/whatisbg/watergas.php[123]

Orgonne Energy

Orgone energy is not a term recognised in physics. According to Wikipedia, Orgone is a pseudoscientific and spiritual concept described as an esoteric energy or hypothetical universal life force, originally proposed in the 1930s by Wilhelm Reich. [124]

Willhelm Reich

Willhelm Reich

developed the Orgone Motor, a small electrical motor which ran directly from the background ocean of orgone energy.[125]

This motor was a small AC type made by Western Electric, with a type number of KS-9154. It would run when Reich connected an antenna and/or earth to the modified Geiger Mueller counter.[126]

Following two critical articles about him in The New Republic and Harper's in 1947, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration obtained an injunction against the interstate shipment of orgone accumulators and associated literature, believing they were dealing with a "fraud of the first magnitude." Charged with contempt in 1956 for having violated the injunction, Reich was sentenced to two years' imprisonment, and that summer over six tons of his publications were burned by order of the court. It has been cited as one of the worst examples of censorship in U.S. history. He died in prison of heart failure just over a year later, days before he was due to apply for parole.[127]

Energy (p_L_C) is the solution.

Based on the reference provided below, this seems to be a method for transmitting power over a distance with the use of lasers.

We are looking for energy in extraterrestrial Although the Energy (P_L_C) will be resolved the most difficult stages amazing human being taken in order to obtain clean energy , you may not own a physique proof of their success but I Know I restocked the presence of experts will go out to the amazing future[128]solar energy technology is good , but I want to replace a variable source of energy lasting and renewable source , the fact that the idea will carry us to invade the world of high-end technology and make us creatures looking for science and sophistication to search for the truth in space with the help of Energy (P_L_C)

Compared Solar Energy (P_L_C)

From the beginning the first human search for energy sources beginning to ignite apile of wood to the very technique contain a large amount of risk on all varieties of life , including where we are .

Perhaps now we will stand in front of an amazing technology ,it will change humanity technology features and aspects of life on Earth including climate energy (P_L_C) amzin the world because of this energy is derived from the spring of amazing energy also.

Comparison here would be wide and straight despite the technical (P_L_C) is still a theory , but to rely on a real and strong and effective spring energy, such as laser technology makes me expect surprises us all .

Compared (P_L_C) solar energy technology employs alot of advantages compared (P_L_C) disadvantages of solar energy for example, solar energy influenced by the duration of the appearance and disappearance of the sun , and this makes it a non-permanent and definite , especially in some regions of the world natural phenomena supplier.

The Technology (P_L_C) will not be affected by any spring variable because it depends on the laser energy as a source of the first permanent strong add

Dust of the disadvantages of solar energy solar cells affected by dust is required cleaned always Loyalty is exposed to the elements as snow and beads cold affect them and affect the shelf-life ,while a (P_L_C) closed device is never affected by natural factors as the comparison is to clarify that the device is designed entirely different cells technology solar because it's small and does not require a clsed position abroad , will be inside the device will (P_L_C) a power generator and amotor fantastic start humanity a new era to build human civilization invade the space and pays tribute to the colonies without the need for difficult and expensive and impossible to energy and the planet will be green again and the world as it was pure.

Energy Permanent Laser Cells (P_L_C)

Technology for an exciting and unique characteristics of the ideal , it depens on the energy silicon plates and silver reflective mirrors that magnify the laser radiation released from the helium-neon laser[1], which works on the production of laser generator , which means easy to be manufactured in the laboratory and it is easy emptying tube and filled it again [2] Energy(P_L_C) is The desired energy that would be a solution to our problems more humane civilization beginning proportion serious pollution that has affected us terribly and on the ground because the pollution-existent in terms of offering all of poison gas and nuclear radiation and the demolition of superstructure of the crust.[3]

There is now to discuss or exchange trillions of dollars for energy wich

always have side consequences unbalance the environment and our fate as human beings technology will open (P_L_C) wonderful vistas for the future of NASA Also , the space compounds amazin plane and saucers and flying rapidly without issuing any gas will achieve (P_L_C) Energy .

Energy(P_L_C) and travel back in time

According to Einstein's spacet[4]

it united the time and place in the cosmic fabric despit the fact that time is not fixed , but it can slowdown and deflation by the speed of time ,but I suppose that the time is not fixed , but that time the power in the same place and an end for the time is fixed and can not be fixed and variable becoming one thing . but so we travel through time to Einstein we must excel at the speed of light . but I suppose the time the strength that we move out for a fixed large place than the speed of light for a fixed place for when we go .

So how do you achive this?[5] Also I suppose we should have the driving force fit the power of time for a fixed place , this does not succed only superiority over the speed of light itself , this laser is a photons light -intesive and shedding the material changed by this resction force that is photons equal in frequency and matched in phase waveforme produces highly cohesive energy in time and space with breakthrough angele so smal that any photons Inflated produce energy but in order to penetrate the speed of light strongly of time for a fixed place to reach for another time could suppose that we need an engine of the vehicle or capsule inflaction than the speed of time and this will not be achieved only card like (P_L_C) are going exceed the speed of light out because the penetrating power to travel in time must be exaggerating the same power and thus penetrate

Energy(P_L_C) and travel back in time. According to Einstein's space-time it united the time and place in the cosmic fabric despit the fact that time is not fixed , but it can slowdown and deflation by the speed of time ,but I suppose Time Force I want you to think with me in the first second large explosion at that moment be time alone without the place and became the only force and the first in the whol universe without the place and when we say that time and place is one thing in the universe , I think that this is impossible because of time before the place because a fixed place and time before the place because a fixed place and time variable regularly Black hole for example, moving from point B in percentage but the place away from the a and approaching of B does not change even though the times are changing on the black hole level because it is accelerating and there are ground-time force that change with the resulting from time force when we put an apple in a fixed place for a week , an Appel agents changed their shape does not change its place because the ground time constant force but cosmic time power can be changed exist to the fabric of spacetime , but there is a tapestry of time left intensity. This is the technology that we want to reach this limit we have made a great technology may be in Energy(P_L_C). We now stand to a great extent where we will assume our responsibility to futur generations in front of life itself because we have been too much in polluting nature without responsibility and without Understanding that the land is not the property of us alone , but we share with other beings and generations will certainly hold us accountable. The laser pulses may be the solution to extract energy from it and convert it into an exciting and amazing electric energy that crosses the cosmic dimensions in moments.

Resonance

In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies. [129] Objects have natural resonant frequencies, and when driven (vibrated) at those frequencies the amplitudes will be relatively large, assuming there is no damping of the vibrations. For example, the loud sound a rubbed wine glass can make is an example of resonance. Resonance exists in electrical and electronic circuits too. However, resonance still obeys the law of conservation of energy and so any extracted energy will be no greater than the total input energy.

To test the claims below the following is useful. The inputs and outputs for any energy generation process can be represented as shown in the System Representation. The efficiency of the system is represented by the output energy divided by the input energy. Note that all energy inputs should be accounted for, including any internal energy storage within the prototype itself. This internal energy could be in any form, not just electrical energy. See the LENR testing for some useful techniques.

Lestor Hendershot

Lestor Hendershot built and demonstrated small seemingly resonant circuits that produced enough energy to light a 100 watt bulb.[130] Ed Skilling who at the time was working for an aerospace company in California purchased a working unit from Lestor. When Ed got home and turned it on, it did not work. Ed took it back to Lestor who "fiddled with it" and got it working.

This is the story of another inventor who died before his ideas were completely understood or accepted by scientists and society. For more than 30 years Lester Hendershot worked on an over-unity device that was thought to be tapping into a magnetic force field. Interestingly, Hendershot seemed to be the only person capable of activating it, but was "unable to provide a satisfactory scientific explanation" for why his creation worked. Nevertheless, the fuel-less generator was demonstrated many times from 1928 to 1960, and its validity was attested to by several witnesses including Charles Lindbergh[131]. A demonstration was even conducted before the U.S. press in which the device passed all assessment tests. Mark Hendershot[132], Lester's son, is continuing his father's research. He believes "that once again the theory and working proof can be presented to a world which may now be ready."(6) For those who are interested, he has the construction plans and research details of his father's device (7). Also, Tim Thrapp of Ohio and Walt Parsons of Florida have built the Hendershot device. Thrapp's successfully "produces about 10 watts continuously with no electrical input (self-running)." There is also reported to be another project being undertaken in Australia (8). According to an advertisement in the Space Energy Journal, "Barry Hilton believes he has discovered the secret to the Hendershot Generator." He has published construction details and a theoretical explanation which is for sale along with a companion video (9). Information about the original Hendershot device can be obtained in detail from The Hendershot Motor Mystery by Tom Brown. 

See also:

THE LESTER J. HENDERSHOT STORY TOLD BY MARK M. HENDERSHOT[133]

Alfred Hubbard

Alfred M. Hubbard was front page news on December 17, 1919, in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer newspaper. Hubbard was only 19 years old when he powered an 18-foot boat around Portage Bay with a 35-horsepower electric motor hooked to his energy generator, which was only 11 inches in diameter and 14 inches long. There were no batteries in the boat and the boat ran for hours beyond the life of batteries.

Hubbard's generator was a central coil wound on a tube, with eight coils around it, wound on iron cores. Here is real power without smog, or fumes and at no cost to operate. This explains why the "authorities" stepped in and stopped the experiments as in other cases through the years.

A Finnish citizen, who worked with Hubbard, gave some additional data to Art Aho, and we have the original tubes that were part of Hubbard's equipment.

Hubbard ran wires North, South East and West, 1200 feet in each direction from his coil generator in the center. These wires passed over 18 of the Earth's square poles in each direction and ended connected to a steel tube with some mercury in it, in the center of the 19th pole in each direction. The alternate polarity, from each pole crossed, perpendicular to the wire created a wave pattern from one end of the wire to the center coil assembly creating a pulse of electrical energy. This fixed generator transmitted a resonant energy to the generator in the boat.

Rotating Magnetic

Robert Adams, inventor of the "Adams Pulsed Electric Motor Generator" as reported by Tom Valone (page 162).[134] Adams describes the background of his technology in his patent:
There have been proposals in the past for machines in which the relative motion of magnets can in some way develop unusually strong force actions which are said to result in more power output than is supplied as electrical input.
By orthodox electrical engineering principles such suggestions have seemed to contradict accepted principles of physics, but it is becoming increasingly evident that conformity with the first law of thermodynamics allows a gain in the electromechanical power balance provided it is matched by a thermal cooling.
In this sense, one needs to extend the physical background of the cooling medium to include, not just the machine structure and the immediate ambient environment, but also the subquantum level of what is termed, in modern physics, the zero-point field. This is the field associated with the Planck constant. Energy is constantly being exchanged as between that activity and coextensive matter forms but normally these energy fluctuations preserve, on balance, an equilibrium condition so that this action passes unnoticed at the technology level.
Physicists are becoming more and more aware of the fact that, as with gravitation, so magnetism is a route by which we can gain access to the sea of energy that pervades the vacuum. Historically, the energy balance has been written in mathematical terms by assigning 'negative' potential to gravitation or magnetism. However, this is only a disguised way of saying that the vacuum field, suitably influenced by the gravitating mass of a body in the locality or by magnetism in a ferromagnet has both the capacity and an urge to shed energy.[135]

[Sounds like pseudo science: caution advised. See LENR testing for some useful test experiments.]

At the 1994 International Symposium on New Energy (ISNE), Bill McMurtry who had worked with Robert Adams and built machines to Adams specifications, submitted an Adams Motor for testing at the Energy Conversion Lab at Colorado State University[136]. It was not found to be over unity. During the ISNE presentation Bill McMurtry said flat out that the Adams motor did not work".[137]

Bruce dePalma

Bruce dePalma (1935-1997), son of noted orthopaedic surgeon Anthony DePalma and elder brother of film director Brian De Palma graduated from M.I.T in 1954. Over the next 40 years he would conduct series of experiments which would lead to new theories regarding principals of rotating masses. [138] He changed the spelling of his name to differentiate himself from his more famous brother.[139] He claimed that his N-machine Homopolar generator, a device based on the Faraday disc, could produce five times the energy required to run it. According to mainstream physics, no such device is physically possible.

De Palma studied electrical engineering at Harvard (1958) and taught physics at MIT for 15 years, working under Harold Eugene Edgerton. He was also employed by Edwin H. Land of Polaroid fame.

Bruce De Palma's development of the N-machine concept in 1977, among his other anomalous devices (at least one of which, De Palma claimed, displayed anti-gravity characteristics) and the claims surrounding them, set him on a collision course with his more mainstream peers. His claims of 'free energy' were vigorously refuted over the course of twenty years, by conventional scientists and some members of the alternative energy community alike.[140] Proponents of his work claim Bruce DePalma’s primary contribution to Science is the discovery that “Inertia is not a property of Mass. Inertia is a property of Space, and Space confers its Inertia on the Masses that occupy it”. He further discovered that the Inertial Field of Space can be polarized simply by rotating an object. Conventionally, this situation creates the appearance of Centrifugal Force at the perimeter of a rotating object, but DePalma discovered that it also produces a corresponding reduction of Inertial forces at the center of the rotating object. Neither Classical Mechanics, nor Quantum Mechanics, nor General Relativity predict or account for this phenomena, rendering them all obsolete.[141]

William Hyde

The Hyde generator is a device developed by William W. Hyde that reported to producer more energy than is used to run it. It's basically a large high voltage capacitor with spinning rotor segments actually in between the capacitor plates, chopping the electric field at high speed (> 6000 RPM.) Stator segments are also in between the capacitor plates and it is actually the electric field between the stator segments and the capacitor plates that is chopped. The resulting output energy is taken off of the stator plates using capacitor/diode networks.

It's documented fairly well in [/www.google.com/patents%3Fid%3DHX4BAAAAEBAJ%26dq%3D4897592 US patent 4897592 - Electrostatic energy field power generating system].[142][143]

Troy Reed

Troy Reed was a skilled machinist and inventor in Tulsa, Oklahoma who built and attempted to demonstrate self running magnetic motors in the late 80's and early 90's.[144]

The larger motor can be seen here:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aF0JvC10edw&feature=youtu.be

The second generation motor can be seen here at 37:31 into the presentation:

https://youtu.be/5fVFXskSN3M

Wesley W. Gary

Wesley W. Gary, born in 1837 is an example of how long inventors have worked on the idea of using magnetic forces to produce a self running magnetic motor or device, At Huntington, Pennsylvaniatwo permanent magnets behave when a metal is placed between them. A metal between 2 magnets, at a certain distance can reduce significantly the repelling and attraction force between them, thus a neutral zone is created. The device was patented as an Improvement on Magneto Electric Machines, Canadian Patent #10239, July 16, 1879.[145] Other patents followed.[146]

Testing

There are some dubious claims here. Therefore a robust scientific testing methodology should be adopted. See LENR testing for some useful test experiments.

Solid State Magnetic

Solid state magnetic devices also are termed MEG, motionless magnetic generators. A Motionless Electromagnetic Generator (MEG) or permanent magnetic flux switching transformer is a device where the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is periodically switched “on and off” by coils as electromagnets.

Tom Bearden

Lt. Col Thomas E. Bearden (retd.), PhD], MS (nuclear engineering), BS (mathematics - minor electronic engineering) is a Co-inventor of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator. This device was fully described in Foundations of Physics Letters, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2001, and measurements indicated more than 100 times more power out than input.[147]

The device which is known as a motionless electromagnetic generator (MEG) has been shown to produce a coefficient of performance (COP) far in excess of unity. The device has been independently replicated by Naudin. In this communication, the fundamental operational principle of the MEG is explained using a version of higher symmetry electrodynamics known as O(3) electrodynamics, which is based on the empirical existence of two circular polarization states of electromagnetic radiation, and which has been developed extensively in the literature. The theoretical explanation of the MEG with O(3) electrodynamics is straightforward: Magnetic energy is taken directly ex vacua and used to replenish the permanent magnets of the MEG device, which therefore produces a source of energy that, in theory, can be replenished indefinitely from the vacuum. Such a result is incomprehensible in U(1) Maxwell-Heaviside electrodynamics.[148]

Tom Bearden has inspired two generations of researchers. His work, theories and lectures can be found here: http://cheniere.org

Erl Koenig

Earl Koenig's Mirror Image Symmetry

An improved method of winding inductors, transformers and motors was discovered by Earl Koenig of Averill Park N.Y. This invention greatly enhances the ability to generate magnetic fields within a given space and with a given amount of wire. Mirror Image Symmetry coil winding improves the efficiency of transformers and motors and has a wide range of industrial applications.

BACKGROUND

In order to visualize this process, imagine a cylindrical coil form. As the form is turned, wire is wound simultaneously onto the form starting from each end. The wires are wound until they meet in the center of the coil form. Here the wires are connected to form one terminal of the circuit. The wires at the opposite ends of the form are connected to form the other terminal of the circuit. The result is a set of coils connected in parallel on a common form. More windings can be added, if rather than connecting the coils when they meet in the center, the wires are wound back over the form toward the ends where the respective windings originated. This results in two coils each occupying half of the form. When the coils are connected as described above, in parallel fashion, the net result is the ability to generate many times the magnetic field within and around the Solenoid.

Definitions:

Mirror Image

1. An object having a spatial arrangement that corresponds to that of another object except that the right to left sense on one object corresponds to the left to right sense on the other.

2. An image of an object, plan , person, etc as it would appear if viewed in a mirror, with right and left reversed.

Symmetry

1. Correspondence in size, shape and relative position of parts on opposite sides of a dividing line.

Mirror Image Symmetry (MIS):

1. A condition midway divided so that equal portions simultaneously separate in opposite directions as viewed from the neutral location between each half section.

U.S. Patent 4,806,834

Villasnor de Rivas

Villasnor de Rivas patented an elecmmagneic generator including a permanent magnet and a core member wherein the direction of magnetic flux flowing from the magnet in the core member is rapidly alternated by switching to generate an alternating current in a winding on the core member. [149]

Magnetic Batteries

Magnetic Batteries may be made as reported with a one inch "cube" neo magnet with 1.3 Tesla magnetic flux across a .020 gap containing water soaked paper towel which produce 270 mVDC @ 94 uADC with "pure magnetic flux" alone. One experiment shows a U shaped magnet bing used.[150] It is possible that this effect relates to the novel method of hydrogen production as reported by Ehrenhaft.[151]

Spinning Mass

Sandy Kidd

Sandy Kidd set out to create an anti-gravity machine in 1980, a device which could one day power flying saucers with energy derived from high-speed gyroscopes. While working as a planning engineer with a North Sea oil company for four years, he spent nearly every spare minute in a makeshift workshop in his garden shed in Dundee, Scotland. Then, at Christmas in 1984, his machine generated its first vertical thrust. "Not much, but it was there and I was over the moon," he recalls. A few weeks later the device was demonstrated at Imperial College, London, for Professor Eric Laithwaite, a pioneering expert on gyroscopes.[152] Kidd's patent clearly refers to his invention "providing a source of energy"[153].

It is unclear whether Mr. Kidd is still active today. The assignee of his patent, Noel Carroll, keeps a website which seems outdated[154].

  • (Kidd, 1987) US 5024112 A[155] Gyroscopic apparatus The present invention relates to a gyroscopic apparatus particularly, but not exclusively, for providing a source of energy. More particularly, the present invention relates to a gyroscopic apparatus having application as a prime mover on land, water or in space.

CIP Engine / Borne Effect

The CIP Engine is a device that converts centrifugal force into a linear motion.  Using an electric motor to rotate the components of the device, this force is generated from within the system which means no reaction with its outer environment is necessary to propel.[156]

Other patents

  • (Cook, 1978) US 4238968 A[157] Device for conversion of centrifugal force to linear force and motion A device to employ centrifugal force for use as linear motion utilizing a pair of counter rotating arms about a common axle. One arm contains a mass splitable and transferable to the other arm and back again at one hundred and eighty degree intervals. The device may include a surface travel system or two of such devices may be employed in tandem for any mode of travel
  • (Carew, 2013) US 20140232224 A1[158] Angular momentum engine This Angular Momentum Engine uses Servo Motors, connected to a planetary gearbox, to spin-up a high speed inertia load, a ‘point mass’ spinning horizontally around a vertical axis, like the ball on the end of a string. “Whenever an object moves in a circular path we know the object is accelerating because the object is continuously changing direction. Accelerations are caused by net forces on an object. In the case of an object moving in a circular path, the net force is a special force called a centripetal force. Centripetal force in Latin means ‘center seeking’.” As this ‘point mass’ is rotating in a circular path so too is the ‘center seeking’ centripetal force. In order for this rotating centripetal force to have practical applications such as to power commercial automobiles, the rotating centripetal force must be changed to linear, straight line centripetal force, the subject matter of this patent. Claim 1 : "This patent can optionally power a generator to create current."

Waste to Hydrocarbons and Fuels

For organic waste (e.g. from plants and animals), this represents an indirect form of solar energy, and may be termed a bio-fuel.

All humans create waste and mostly dump it. Everything Humans harvest we eventually throw out with most of it's chemical energy still intact.

Some have suggested increasing bioenergy from energy crops severalfold from its present value of ∼50 exajoule (EJ)/y. This is a mistake because it threatens food, fiber and lumber supply. Only wastes should be used and they are enough.

Fuels from wastes are the final missing piece to a 100% renewable, cheap, clean, Turning steelmaking off-gases into safe, infinite energy system based on solar pv and wind.

Transitioning global transport forms one of the hardest obstacles to overcome in an effort to decarbonise future energy systems. [159] So this might be of interest.

An unusual approach uses a bio-fuel cell, two types of bacteria, organic feed, and solar energy to produce electricity. [160]

CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) to Fuel

In addition to the following CO2 to fuel approaches below, CO2 can also be used to produce valuable manufacturing resources, like carbon nano-tubes[161]; and given a solar powered process, that also means less conventional (polluting) energy is needed to create these 21st century materials.

Joule Unlimited

How does it work? The process employs engineered cyanobacteria as living, fuel-producing factories. Photosynthetic by nature, they capture sunlight and consume CO2 in order to grow. However, by altering their metabolism, we have redirected the output of this natural process from biomass to fuels. The conversion of CO2 to fuel is direct and continuous, in sharp contrast to the multi-step retrieval of sugars or oils from plant or algal matter – whether newly grown and harvested or buried in the earth’s crust over millennia. Moreover, this process upcycles industrial waste CO2 that would otherwise enter the atmosphere – giving governments around the world an economical option for carbon mitigation.[162]

Joule has pioneered a CO2-to-fuel production platform, effectively reversing combustion through the use of solar energy. The company’s platform applies engineered catalysts to continuously convert waste CO2 directly into renewable fuels such as ethanol or hydrocarbons for diesel, jet fuel and gasoline. Free of feedstock constraints and complex processing, Joule’s process can achieve unrivaled scalability, volumes and costs without the use of any agricultural land, fresh water or crops. Joule is privately held and has raised over $200 million in funding to date.[163]

Waste to Energy Companies

Covanta

Covanta works with companies and communities to find sustainable solutions to their waste management challenges. With over 70 facilities around the world, Covanta is a leader in sustainable waste and energy solutions.[164]

Wheelabrator Technologies

Wheelabrator Technologies is an industry leader (the second largest U.S. energy-from-waste business[165]) in the safe and environmentally sound conversion of everyday residential and business waste - and other renewable waste fuels - into clean energy. Wheelabrator pioneered the energy-from-waste industry in the U.S. when it designed, built and operated the first commercially successful facility in 1975.[166]

LanzaTech

Carbon bearing waste gases (from steel making) can be converted into useful fuels and chemical pre-cursors by means of a fermentation process developed by LanzaTech and currently being demonstrated in China. The first commercial plant at Baosteel will have a capacity of 10 million gallons of fuel-grade ethanol annually beginning in 2014.[167]

RedWave Energy

RedWave Energy is developing technology and building a company to convert industrial waste heat to electricity at disruptive efficiency and price points.[168]

The Earth Engineering Center (EEC)

The Earth Engineering Center (EEC) was formed in 1995. Its [/www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/original%20eec.html original mission] was to direct engineering research on processes and products that balance the increasing use of materials and the finite resources of the Earth. EEC introduced the Industrial Ecology, GIS, and Thermal Processing of Wastes courses at Columbia Universityat, was the first engineering unit of Columbia's Earth Institute, and co-organized the 1997 Global Warming International Conference (GW8) at Columbia.[169]

China Everbright International Limited 

China Everbright International Limited  is a leading player in China's environmental protection industry and the first one-stop integrated environmental solution provider in the country. It leverages talent, science and technology to develop all of its four major business segments, namely environmental energy, environmental water (China Everbright Water Limited is listed on the Mainboard of the Singapore Exchange Securities Trading Limited ([/www.ebwater.com/ www.ebwater.com])), greentech and envirotech. It also leads a large number of industry-leading, world-class projects, in the areas of waste-to-energy, water restoration, biomass integrated utilization, hazardous waste treatment, photovoltaic energy, wind power, environmental protection engineering, technological research and development, environmental protection equipment manufacturing, plus the planning and construction of environmental protection industrial parks.[170]

Reklaim

Recycling rubber into valuable carbon black & energy products, while transforming the way the world manages scrap tires and launching a new sector in the green economy.[171]

The Advanced Energy Research Facility (AERF)

The City of Edmonton, Alberta Canada - The Advanced Energy Research Facility (AERF) offers unique research and development capabilities to test diverse feedstocks for gasification and for production of higher value liquid products from syngas.[172]

Government Agencies

Bioenergy Technologies Office

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE’s) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) establishes partnerships with key public and private stakeholders to develop and demonstrate technologies for producing cost-competitive advanced biofuels from non-food biomass resources, including cellulosic biomass, algae, and wet waste (e.g., biosolids).[173]

Brewing energy from coffee waste

Utilization of waste coffee grounds as a potential new-low cost alternative feedstock for biodiesel production.. The grounds can be dried in an oven at 105° C to remove moisture (mostly 25 wt%) and then the oil is extracted by applying a soxhlet process. A low-boiling organic solvent such as n-hexane was used. Afterwards the oil is separated from the solvent using a rotary evaporator and its physicochemical properties were measured. The experimental results showed that the oil content of spent coffee grounds is between 10-15 % w/w (on a dry weight basis). The oil can be converted to biodiesel via transesterification reaction[174].

All the reactions can be carried out at 65oC for 2 h with anhydrous methanol in methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 9:1using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as catalyst in amount (1%). The conversion of coffee oil was found to be about 92 %. Finally, the quality parameters of the produced biodiesel were determined according to the European standard EN 14214. The results of the produced fatty acid methyl esters are very promising. Moreover, the biodiesel derived from coffee oil possesses better oxidation stability than biodiesel from other sources, due to the endogenous antioxidants it contains. In addition, the waste solid remaining after the oil extraction can be utilized as compost as well as fuel pellets. This work could offer a new perspective in the production of biofuels[174].

Energy from Chocolate waste

The waste left over from a chocolate factory can actually be fed to E. coli bacteria, which results in the creation of hydrogen. Hydrogen is one of the cleanest known fuels, as its only byproduct is water[175].

Using E. coli bacteria, identified by the researchers as having the right sugar-consuming, hydrogen-generating properties, a fermenter is set up containing the bacteria along with the caramel-like waste product and a gas such as nitrogen. Under these conditions, the E. coli ferments the sugars, generating a range of organic acids. To alleviate this toxicity in their environment they convert formic acid to hydrogen. And it's a technology that could be adapted for use with most forms of food waste, making it internationally applicable[175].

Energy from onion juice

The Advanced Energy Recovery System (AERS) is an anaerobic digester that turns shredded and pressed onion waste (aka onion juice) into biogas, which is then conditioned and turned into methane—the main component of natural gas. The gas goes into Fuel Cell Energy's 600 kilowatt fuel cell to be turned into power[176].

Energy from Nuclear Waste

Atlas Energy Systems, LLC

Atlas Energy Systems, LLC is developing an energy conversion mechanism to turn ionizing radiation from nuclear reactions into electricity. The goal is to develop radioisotope batteries and portable nuclear power supplies for defense, space, and remote power applications.[177]

The Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT)

The Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT) brings together engineers, scientists and managers from universities and industry. The mission of WTERT is to identify and advance the best available waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies for the recovery of energy or fuels from municipal solid wastes and other industrial, agricultural, and forestry residues. The WTERT website includes the information database SOFOS that contains thousands of technical papers. The web pages of WTERT-US and its sister organizations around the world have become one of the best sources of information on the subject of Sustainable Waste Management.[178]

Aternative Fuels

Alternative fuels that break our reliance on fossil fuels are potentially interesting.

For example, transitioning global transport forms one of the hardest obstacles to overcome in an effort to decarbonise future energy systems. [179] So alternative fuels might help to solve this.

Metal Powder Fuels

Combusting nanometer size metal powders in an external combustion engine, such as a Stirling cycle design, offers an interesting clean and zero carbon alternative to liquid or gaseous fuel combustion[180][181]. The energy density contained in aluminium, iron or boron powders, for instance are very high per kilogram of fuel. The result of combusting aluminium is aluminium oxide or Alumina, which can be returned to a smelter and regenerated back into aluminium, making for a recyclable fuel[182]. In this regard the aluminium fuel can be considered an energy carrier rather than a primary source, since it takes electricity to produce the aluminium, and that electricity is recovered as heat on combustion in a mobile vehicle engine, for example. If the aluminium smelter is powered by hydro, which they usually are, then the cycle is largely carbon free. Iron nano particles are oxidized to iron oxide, which can be regenerated back to iron by reheating in a flow of hydrogen. Metal powder fuel has the benefit of no carbon dioxide, and no particulates, and no nitrogen oxides if the combustion temperature is kept down[183].

Solar Fuels

Solar fuel is a term used for artificial photosynthesis processes which convert sunlight to fuels through one of a number of available pathways. If achievable at commercially relevant scale and price, these processes have the potential to replace fossil fuel sources with fuels created by solar energy in a carbon neutral cycle while fitting into existing global fuel  infrastructure. In addition, the production of fuels using renewable energy offers a global scale energy storage solution for the intermittent nature of renewable energy. There are many hundreds, or more, papers related to artificial photosynthesis, solar fuels and synthetic fuel production. An efficient method to begin review of the material is to refer to survey papers and presentations which can provide summaries to several complex topics[184][185][186].

Several research institutes and groups are dedicated to working on artificial photosynthesis and solar fuels[187][188][189][190].  There is proof of concept demonstration plant on a farm in the UK where the entire chain from using renewable energy to drive capturing CO2 and water from the air, splitting hydrogen from water with electrolysis, and reacting the CO2 and H2 together to make ~5L/day of synthetic fuels has been built out[191]. Significant scientific progress has been made in improving the efficiencies of the first step, splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen in direct solar to fuels methods (outside of traditional electrolysis), with at least one group reaching 14% solar energy to hydrogen production efficiency[192]. These efficiencies are beginning to look promising for commercial utilization. Improving the next step of then converting the hydrogen with CO2 from the air into alcohol fuels is still proving challenging to increase efficiencies in commercially relevant scalable designs. This step, in particular, needs significant funding to make the breakthroughs. It is not only materials and chemistry which can be tuned for efficient catalysis, surface nanoscale structure is also proving to be important[193].

Direct fuel synthesis or algae produced bio fuels driven from renewables (solar energy) has the opportunity to produce fuels at significantly greater efficiency than doing solar photovoltaic to electrolysis to electrocatalysis. Solar fuels are not a new primary energy source (since it is driven by solar energy) but the pathway to transportable, economical, useful, abundant, wide reaching liquid chemical energy carriers is new and game changing. The fuel itself could be any one of methanol, butanol, syngas (H2 + CO) or even ammonia. Each has advantages in many ways, and some disadvantages. All will likely be required. Bill Gates wrote about solar and synthetic fuels as promising technologies worthy of heavy investment for a clean energy future in his November 2015 white paper on energy innovations for the Breakthrough Energy Coalition[194].

Hydrogen From Splitting Water

There are four common methods to split water into hydrogen and oxygen: electrochemical[195][196][197], photochemical[198][199], thermochemical[200][201] and biochemical (microbial)[202][203], or a combination thereof[204]. Solar photoelectrochemical water splitting can be enabled by structured nanoscale materials[205]. Engineering of catalysts and coatings to allow light through to semiconductor layers, while protecting the materials from the harsh chemical environment and providing efficient catalytic reactions are someof the challenges being addresses by researchers[206][207]. One innovative approach to solar hydrogen production even enabled a time delayed dark production so that hydrogen could continue to be produced through the night[208].

For example, there is a patent for thermochemical hydrogen produced from a vanadium decomposition cycle,[209] and a solar, catalytic, hydrogen generation apparatus and method[210].

Butanol

Of all the alcohols butanol is the closest in properties to gasoline and the easiest to convert a gasoline engine vehicle to run on[211]. Therefore several solar fuel and other biofuels producers are focussing on butanol, over the more common ethanol or methanol[212][213]. Butanol can easily mix at 85%, and has been shown to effectively power an unmodified car running on 100% butanol[214].

Syngas

Syngas is mixed hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas. Solar and other synthetic fuel production methods can reduce CO2 into CO, making syngas one fuel pathway. A research team at the University of Illinois at Chicago reported in 2016 they had achieved 6.4% solar to syngas efficiency with an electrochemical catalyst system[215][216].

Diesel

A research group at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, in South Korea, worked on a catalyst to recycle CO2 with hydrogen sourced from water splitting into diesel fuel[217][218].

However, diesel powered vehicles are a significant contributor to adverse air pollution in urban areas across the globe, and so steps are being proposed, and taken, to prevent the use of diesel vehicles. [219] [220]

Ammonia

An alternative to reusing CO2 with water split hydrogen in synthetic fuels is to reuse nitrogen with water split hydrogen and make ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is great hydrogen carrier for hydrogen or direct ammonia fuel cells, or for combustion in internal combustion engines. It is the only zero carbon liquid fuel that can fuel existing internal combustion engines. It takes relatively minor modifications to convert an existing spark ignition engine vehicle to dual fuel with ammonia. Ammonia is typically produced using the Haber-Bosch process, a high pressure and temperature process, with steam reformed natural gas as the hydrogen source[221]. Nitrogen is abundant (air is ~78% nitrogen) and there are established processes to separate it from air, including membrane separation. Hydrogen can be provided by one of the new and more efficient water splitting reactions. Groups have been working on low energy ambient pressure and temperature alternatives to the Haber-Bosch process for the catalytic synthesis of NH3 and there are some promising steps. These include enzymatic fuel cells which produce electricity and ammonia[222], and solid state ammonia synthesis (SSAS) electrochemical reactor technologies[223][224][225]. The USA government ARPA-e program has been supporting research challenges in synthetic fuels, including ammonia synthesis[226], and the Department of Energy has studied it as well[227]. Researchers have even found methods to synthesize ammonia from air and water, without having to separate nitrogen from the air and hydrogen from water[228]. If this could be scaled it would represent a breakthrough advance for agriculture and fuels.

Ammonia is considered by many as a top candidate of the synthetic fuels to enable global scale renewable energy storage[229]. The infrastructure exists to store and ship ammonia because of it's large scale use in agriculture. The USA even has a number of pipelines dedicated to transporting ammonia[230]. Ammonia is the most dense liquid hydrogen carrier, more dense than cryogenic liquid hydrogen itself. Ammonia can be combusted, used in an ammonia fuel cell, or reformed into hydrogen for a hydrogen fuel cell. It is a gas at ambient pressure and temperature, so does need to be compressed for storage as a liquid, but only at ~125psi similar to propane. There are some hazards with ammonia, but not more than already exist with gasoline. Combusting ammonia does cause some NOx emissions, but these can be captured and cleaned up using existing NOx scrubbers, such as catalytic converters in vehicles. The huge benefit is, of course, ammonia is not a greenhouse gas and has no carbon, so if it can be produced with low CO2 emissions it is very low impact to the climate. Even if ammonia is not readily adopted as a hydrogen carrier for personal vehicles soon, it makes a wonderfully clean fuel for stationary commercial and industrial engines[231]. All the benefits that accrue from advancing ammonia synthesis for a fuel also carry over to it's use as a fertilizer for agriculture[232]. Some companies have begun working on providing appliances for synthesising ammonia from air and water, using renewable energy where available[233][234].

Low Grade Heat

One of the most promising and least speculative ways we can expand abundant clean energy is to better utilize low grade heat wherever it may be found. Power from low grade heat can be obtained from thermal differentials as low as 40 degrees celcius in some cases. The heat could be from the environment, such as inexpensive solar thermal, ground source heat, or from biological activity such as wastewater or other biomass microbial breakdown. Or it could be waste heat from existing man-made activities, improving overall energy efficiency of many wasteful processes.

External Heat Engines

Some of the highest efficiency low grade heat to mechanical power, and to electricity generation can be obtained from Stirling Cycle engine designs, including low moving part and maintenance free piston designs, and no moving part thermoacoustic designs.

Stirling cycle engines:

One of the most efficient engine cycles, that can take a fuel, either a natural renewable like biomass or methane or a energy store like powdered iron or aluminium, and burn it to convert it into usable power such as electricity, is a Stirling cycle engine, both mechanical[235] and thermoacoustic[236] types. Since these engines run on heat, they are also fantastic at converting solar heat[237], potentially ground sourced heat or geothermal heat[238], or waste heat from another source[239][240], into power. Several companies have Stirling cycle engines in development or on the market, achieving higher than 25% efficiency[241][242].

Thermoacoustic engines

Thermoacoustic engines turn heat energy into sound waves which drive a turbine or diaphragm connected to an electrical generator. They have no moving parts with the exception of the motion needed for electricity generation, replacing the pistons of a Stirling engine with pressure waves of the gas inside the engine (often air, sometimes another like CO2). These engines can operate at very high efficiencies for a heat to mechanical to electrical conversion process, and offer long lifetimes and low or sometimes essentially no maintenance. Several companies are developing high efficiency thermoacoustic engine solutions for waste heat recovery and other heat sources[243][244].

Zero Energy Design

This Concept arise from a US Based Company according to them:-[245]

What Is Zero Energy Design® ?

Zero Energy Design® Means NO Annual Net Energy Utility Bills - Zero, Zip, Zilch, Nada. It should be clear that any imitation of Zero Energy Design® with ANY annual net energy bills at all is NOT "ZERO ENERGY."

Zero Energy Design® is a registered-trademark Holistic Integrated Systems-Engineering Process - developed and demonstrated effectively in 1979 by Larry Hartweg (a widely-recognized successful second-generation Energy Research Scientist) with support from the new U.S. Department of Energy - following the significant impact of the 1973-1979 OPEC Oil Embargoes.

ENERGY IS THE ESSENCE OF EVERYTHING

Nothing in the universe can exist without energy, from the smallest imaginable sub-atomic vibrating superstrings, to the largest of all super galaxies.

At the human scale, we must consume stored chemical energy in the form of nutritious food. The energy to grow plants is radiated from the Sun (about 93 million miles away). Plants convert solar energy into a form that animals and humans can digest.

Our world is full of various processes and machines that convert energy from one useful form to another. New energy-dependent man-made technology Innovations seem to be endless. Our future depends on a growing supply of low-cost clean energy.

We need many forms of energy to grow and transport our food. We need other forms of energy to heat and cool our buildings, so we can survive in a variety of climatic extremes. Energy for buildings is The Number One Top Priority opportunity for large reduction of inefficient energy consumption in America.

Note: There is also a separate page on Zero Point Energy, which is a specific, proposed, source of energy based on quantum mechanical processes.

Geothermal power

The vast quantities of molten magma below the Earth's surface contain very large amounts of thermal energy. If we could harvest this energy then that would supply huge amounts of clean, abundant, energy. However, that is easier said than done, as there are significant technical challenges associated with this.

In some parts of the world though this geothermal energy rises nearer the surface, and this offers the prospect of a relatively new energy source. The country of Iceland has such opportunities and generates 25 percent of its electricity in this way[246].

At Ball State University Water, in Indiana, water heated by the Earth began flowing through a new geothermal district heating and cooling system in spring 2012. This portion of the geothermal conversion allows Ball State to reduce its reliance on four aging coal-fired boilers. When the system is fully operational, the university will be able to shut down the boilers, thereby cutting the campus carbon footprint nearly in half. The system will heat and cool 47 buildings and result in $2 million in annual savings. To create the system, Ball State is drilling approximately 3,600 boreholes in borehole fields around campus.[247]

The billionaire backed Breakthrough Energy Coalition lists Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on their landscape for future energy.

Earth’s vast reserves of deep geothermal heat—experts estimate total accessible reserves of more than 1,000 GW in the United States alone—present a huge opportunity to provide large amounts of zero-carbon baseload power if we can only find a way to cost-effectively tap into this energy. However, while we know the energy is there, major scientific and technical obstacles to accessing and controlling the subsurface inexpensively have so far prevented the successful commercial development of this resource, including challenges associated with high deep drilling costs, forming and controlling complex fracture networks for water and heat flow, and efficiently converting low temperature heat into electricity. The development of transformational new technologies to solve these challenges holds great promise to allow us to finally tap into this vast zero-carbon energy resource.[248]

Belgium based Terra Energy is an independent specialized consulting firm in renewable thermal energy systems with a particular expertise in geothermal energy or geothermal energy . Terra Energy provides advice , design , site supervision , monitoring , optimization , research and policy support for governments and companies from standard solutions to projects tailor.[249]

Power Distribution Grid

Generating power is only one part of the equation if it is generated by a remote power plant. Power needs to be distributed to the end user. In the case of electricity, this is typically done using an electricity grid.

Electricity grids use very high voltages to deliver the power over long distances. The high voltage means less power is lost in the transmission cables; however, in the future, superconductors have the potential to remove the need for high voltages. This could potentially lead to quicker and easier deployment of new grid networks, less maintenance and lower transmission costs. Currently, superconductors need to be cooled, but they are starting to be used for power transmission. [250] [251] [252] [253]

Grids are used to carry electrical power across a country and between countries[254].

The UK grid for example links the countries of the UK, and also includes a number of undersea cables. [255] The total distribution loss is about 8 percent.

There are plans for a super-grid that carries electricity over thousands of miles[256]. This could be useful for sharing intermittent renewable power sources.

An alternative to "The Grid" is a decentralized distributed power approach to energy delivery. In this scenario, the cost of the expensive long distance cabling and the required maintenance is avoided.[257][258]

Managing the energy generated by large centralised plants and decentralised sources is giving rise to the smart grid. This may make use of the Internet of Things (IoT) to sense where and when demand is required. It can also be used to determine when energy storage facilities are charged and called upon to deliver power. GE has such a platform. [259] [260]

The billionaire backed Breakthrough Energy Coalition describes Next-Generation Ultra-Flexible Grid Management:

Power grids around the world were originally designed for one-way power flow from large centralized power plants – controlled on demand – to passive electricity consumers at the end of the wire. The introduction of significant amounts of centralized intermittent wind and solar and distributed solar power onto power grids is rapidly changing this paradigm, introducing growing electricity supply variability and two-way power flows. This is creating a need for smarter, more responsive, and more flexible approaches to managing and controlling the grid. Through the development and application of advanced information and communications technologies, new sensors and controls, and new system optimization approaches, a new generation of ultra-flexible grid management solutions will enable growing amounts of renewables, distributed energy, and growing numbers of empowered consumers to be interconnected cost effectively through seamless real-time management of the millions of devices connected to the grid.[261] [262]

Modular Distributed Green Energy Solutions to Reduce the aggregate cost of Green Energy Production and Installation

With all the benefits of clean energy production and the huge possibilities (Renewable energy will represent the largest single source of electricity growth over the next five years[263]), renewable green energy is still relatively expensive to produce or install. One would guess that in order to get renewable energy (be it Solar, Wind or from other sources) to the masses, we need to considerably lower the costs of design, procurement, installation, and maintenance. With the Modular Distributed Green Energy system (designed by Dickson, Ozokwelu, pHD), the cost of production and installation becomes affordable because the production is modulable and thus evolves with the needs of the users. Instead of planning a huge solar farm to power 200 houses for example, the planning start by identifying the energy of each building, standardizing those needs, planning for expansion, and adapting the production size to those needs while eliminating the grid by installing right at the location of usage. Because the Modular Distributed Energy System (MDES) starts by moving from energy-hungry appliances to energy-star-rated ones, the energy needs of the building are considerably lowered (40 to 65%). Also, because the production is made in modules (thus enabling users to upgrade or downgrade by adding or removing production modules), the cost of storage is also reduced (lower production required easier to meet storage requirements). This methodology solves issues related to the costs, transport, storage and maintenance of Clean Energy Production :
The center piece of the Modular Distributed Green Energy System is the combination of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies and equipment to design, procure and install lower cost, affordable, and reliable distributive electrical systems for both urban and rural areas. 
Installations include on and off grid applications, system monitoring, utilities net metering and maintenance. 
Installing Modular distributed Green Energy Systems (MDGE Systems), to serve as models for rural communities. Successful demonstration of MDGE Systems will accelerate the provision of electricity and significant alleviation of poverty in rural Africa. 
The cost of a Modular Distributed Green Energy System would depend on several factors including energy source or type, system size, local permitting, installation requirements, local environment and space availability yet it would be considerably lower than the cost of traditionally producing clean energy.[264]
When thinking of Clean Energy, the financial aspect is often whats dictates the realization of the project. Modular Distributed Energy Solutions are the way to standardize clean energy production and expand its appeal to rural areas and third world countries; by focusing on inside the building before production, clean energy will finally allow users to really be off the grid[265]

Major advances in energy storage/batteries

Batteries with increased energy densities bring obvious benefits of smaller and lighter batteries, per unit of energy stored.

Significant progress is being made in battery technologies, in terms of their performance, energy density and cost; and this is expected to continue. [266]

Such progress also makes more things possible; for example improved electric car [267] and electric bike range [268], and electric powered aeroplanes (as densities of 0.4 kWh/kg are approached)[269].

Attributes

What are the significant attributes of energy storage batteries, and what might we want to see improved?

Battery Attributes
Attribute Unit Description
Capacity kWh / kg The amount of energy stored per unit mass: energy density. (Actual usable capacity for optimum rechargeable battery life. Some technologies perform poorly under full charge-discharge cycles, leading to shortened battery life. Ideally 100% of the capacity should be usable, without an impact on battery life.)
Power kW Maximum output power.
Lifetime charges or years For a rechargeable battery, number of charge-discharge cycles; for others lifetime in years.
Charge time seconds Typically rechargeable batteries take several minutes or hours to recharge, but why not seconds (e.g. super-capacitor)?
Cost $ / kWh Cost per unit of energy stored.
Safety Batteries should not catch fire or explode.
Impact on health and the environment Ideally batteries should be free of toxins and environmental pollutants. Currently, batteries require special recycling measures to prevent contamination of the environment (and to recover materials).

Currently comparing battery performance can be a complex process and a compromise might need to be made. [270] [271]

Graphene

Graphene has been looked at as an alternative to the current materials used in storing ions on the electrodes of super-capacitors. The reason for this is that you want a material that has a big surface area. The greater the surface area the more ions can be stored on it.

Graphene has a theoretical surface area of around 2600 square meters per gram. Unfortunately, that theoretical surface area can really be translated into a real device because that surface area is only achievable with a standalone sheet of graphene. In order to get it to work in a practical device that will provide a decent volumetric capacitance, you need to stack a number of sheets on top of each other at which point the theoretical surface area is lost and you get about the same surface area you can get with the activated carbon used today.[272]

Ultra-Low-Cost Electricity Storage

The billionaire backed Breakthrough Energy Coalition explains what major advancements in battery technology would mean to a changed energy paradigm.

Increasing penetrations of intermittent renewables, such as wind and solar power, on the world’s power grids will require the deployment of growing amounts of energy storage to balance out the momentary, daily, and seasonal power fluctuations of these resources. In order for power grids with large amounts of grid-scale energy storage, solar, and wind power to be cost competitive with more traditional power systems, a wide array of ultra-low cost new transformational energy storage technologies will need to be developed and perfected in the years and decades ahead.[273]

Tesla Giga Factory

Planned production at Tesla's Nevada Gigafactory, in 2020, is expected to exceed the entire 2013 global production.[274]

Tesla Energy is Getting Serious – A Battery Powered World? (YouTube)[275]

Tesla Powerwall

Powerwall 2 is a rechargeable lithium-ion battery designed for households to store solar power and offer emergency backup, load-shifting, and other grid service applications. It has a 14kWh battery pack, liquid thermal control system, inverter, and 24-hour monitoring via a smartphone app.[276]

Tesla Powerpack

Powerpack 2 is for business and utility applications and scalable from 200kWh to over 100MWh applications.[277][278]

CalBattery Silicon-Graphene (SiGr) 

Developed in cooperation with Argonne National Laboratory in 2010, this technology takes full advantage of graphene’s strength and elasticity to stabilize silicon in a composite anode. That is, CalBattery’s unique manufacturing process for SiGr anodes uniformly embeds nano-silicon into graphene platelets in stable structures that in turn absorb the silicon expansion during charging. This creates the most stable silicon anode material known today – effectively tripling anode specific capacity (from 325mAh/g to 1,250mAh/g) over the traditional graphite anode materials used today.[279]

Incremental Improvements

​Samsung SDI launches CalBattery Silicon-Graphene (SiGr) high-capacity ESS aimed for Europe [280] The article says that Samsung batteries are used by Tesla.

Magnetic Energy Storage System

ABB received an over $4.5 million award from ARPA-E for their Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage System with Direct Power Electronics Interface technology.[281]

Alternative Electrodes and Electrolytes

There is lots of laboratory experimentation with improved electrodes and alternative electrolytes.

A 2D polymer has been produced that allows batteries to make use of the more abundant sodium (compared with the traditionally used lithium) [282]. When it was used as the anode material in sodium ion batteries, it can be charged and discharged quickly at room temperature, and retained 70 per cent of its capacity after 7,700 charge cycles, which is unprecedented. The new material also worked well when it was tested as an electrode in lithium ion battery. The method used enables fabrication of the 2D polymer on a large scale, and at a low cost that is comparable to the cost of mass producing plastic. The use of an organic-based material also provides a safer storage medium for sodium ions due to the more inert nature of carbon materials.

Solid State Battery

John Goodenough, professor in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin and co-inventor of the lithium-ion battery, has developed the first all-solid-state battery cells that could lead to safer, faster-charging, longer-lasting rechargeable batteries for handheld mobile devices, electric cars and stationary energy storage. [283]

Goodenough’s latest breakthrough, completed with senior research fellow Maria Helena Braga, is a low-cost all-solid-state battery that is noncombustible and has:

  • a long cycle life (battery life)
  • high volumetric energy density (three times as much energy density as today’s lithium-ion batteries), and
  • fast rates of charge and discharge (minutes rather than hours).

Flow Batteries

Flow batteries, sometimes called flow fuel cells, are energy storage devices which have the ability to be recharged by flowing or replacing externally stored electrolyte or 'fuel' in the battery. One of their most desirable advantages is the relative simplicity in scaling them up to grid scale capacity by increasing the electrolyte volume[284]. Energy density is typically lower in flow batteries than other alternatives, but efficiencies, capacity, lifetime, overall costs and low risk materials are all impressive features. These are all reasons why many organizations are working hard on producing flow batteries to help the grid cope with high percentages of intermittent renewable energy sources.

An alternative form of flow battery is the metal-air battery, with various metals available and high energy densities[285][286][287]. For example both Zinc-air flow batteries for large stationary uses [288] and aluminium-air flow batteries as a renewable energy store for electric vehicles are commercially available[289].

Another type of flow cell is the aluminium-water cell represented on the market by an MIT spinout company[290]. This cell has very high energy density and is designed for extreme conditions such as under ocean work.

Other forms of flow cells can be created from salinity gradients between fresh and seawater[291][292][293], and from novel electrolyte chemistry[294].

Aqueous Hybrid Ion (saltwater batteries)

Saltwater batteries provide storage that is considerably safer than many other battery technologies, because it uses simpler nontoxic components such as saltwater, plastic, burnt corn syrup, etc. It can also be cost-effective because of its simple component costs. Pittsburgh, PA manufacturer Aquion Energy claims these are "the only batteries in the world to be Cradle to Cradle Certified™" as well as having long lifetimes and being able to tolerate conditions that stress other batteries, such as wide temperature ranges, partial state of charge cycling, and daily deep cycling.[295] These batteries are primarily useful in stationary storage applications, not in mobile applications, because of the relatively high mass associated with storing energy in salt water.

Ultra-Low-Cost Thermal Storage

Billionaire backed Breakthrough Energy Ventures describes the opportunity thermal storage provides. If a novel idea to take heat and store the associated energy, this could truly result in a breakthrough change.

Most conventional electricity generating systems in use today are thermally-powered, including coal, natural gas, nuclear, and solar thermal power. Thermal energy storage technologies can allow for more flexibility in the electrical output of these systems—which is especially valuable in grids where growing amounts of intermittent renewable power are increasing the need for and value of power plants that can operate flexibly and deliver more power to the grid when it is most needed. Today’s thermal storage medium of choice is molten salt, but we need to develop transformational new cheaper and more efficient approaches to thermal storage to enable more widespread availability of cost-effective flexibility and rampable power from low-carbon thermally-driven power plants.[296]

Battery Charging Technologies

John Bedini

John Bedini presented a talk at the 1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium[297] in Colorado Springs that catapulted his inventions into the world of alternative energy. The Bedini motor is probably the most famous device in the over unity, free energy community. The diagrams for building the motor were suppled by John for others to reproduce and can be seen here: http://www.keelynet.com/bedmot/bedmot.htm. The Bedini system consists a batteries and a motor. The batteries are continually charged by capturing the indicative kick back from the motor drive coils.

Dr. Shiuji Inomatta

Dr. Shiuji Inomatta was a researcher at the Electrotechnical Laboratory, Ministry Of International Trade And Industry in Japan circa 1992- 2001. The institute is now known as the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. His group noted that when charging storage batteries using high voltage pulses that the energy the battery stored and could be discharged was greater than the energy used during the charging. Inomata developed a theory of the aether which he called Shadow Energy or Ki-Energy and formed The Committee for the Industrial Application of Ki-Energy.

http://www.naturalphilosophy.org/pdf//abstracts/abstracts_2628.pdf[298]

Newman Motor

Joseph Newman claimed to have invented a motor that produces 25 times more power than it used.[299] He tried to patent the device but his patent was refused. The story of his fight with the United States patent Office and National Bureau of Standards testing[300] received national attention. A deminsrtration of his motor can be seen here: [/youtu.be/5EL%20bLOK8%20A https://youtu.be/5EL_bLOK8_A].

One of his later machines weighed 7,500-lbs with a 1,200-lb rotor and a 450-lb flywheel (spinning at hundreds of rpms) powering a 375-lb positive displacement pump with a 4-inch diameter intake/out-take & 10-foot head pumping 5,000 GPM.[301]

Sam Talieferro of Magnetic Engineering, Breckenridge, Colorado commissioned a replication of Newman's Motor. While testing of the motor by Dr. Roger Hastings of Unisys Corporation[302] had indicated that the system was over unity, Talieferro's contracted engineering test indicated that the DC resistance of the rotor coils was used in the calculations without taking into account the reactance, (AC impedance) of the rotor coils, leading to errors in the calculation of efficiency and concluded that the device had an efficiency less than one[303].

THIS SECTION NEEDS ATTENTION. THE FOLLOWING DOES NOT RELATE TO DR. INOMATA

Has basic system for the public. Based on Adams motor design with bifilar coil

Three stage process

1. 2 battery bank system, similar to Bedini system, mechanical power producing torque

2. Add Carlos Benitez process Use solar system, run motor on 24 volt system through motor to batteries to plus side in a closed loop system.

3. Add a third step, the zero point process (zero voltage across Gabriel Khon, crate zero voltage and do real work AC or DC. Some energy get sent back to battery.

Cooks System - Induction coil system

Fast charging of battery using adjustable voltage control

Patent: US 8754614 B2[304]

"The present invention relates generally to rechargeable lithium-ion-type chemistry batteries, and more specifically to fast charging of automotive Li-ion battery packs."

"A battery cell charger for rapidly charging a lithium ion battery cell (or string of series-parallel connected cells) having a maximum battery cell voltage the battery cell charging system including: a circuit for charging the battery cell using an adjustable voltage charging-profile to apply a charging voltage and a charging current to the battery cell"

Methods and systems for rapid wireless charging

Patent: US 20140084856 A1[305]

"This invention relates generally to charging cells of batteries, and more particularly to wirelessly charging cells of batteries."

Superconductors

Although superconductors are not generally regarded as part of an energy generating solution they might have an important role to play in delivering abundant electrical power. Therefore, they have been included in this wiki.

Superconductors have a strange electrical property: they have no resistance. This means that a current can flow without losing any energy.

Currently, superconductors only work at low temperatures, and so need cooling with something like liquid nitrogen.

They are currently used to provide the high magnetic fields used in MRI scanners[306], and the magnets used in the particle accelerators at CERN[307].

Superconducting cables can transfer electrical power without the need for high voltage pylons[308][309][310]. However, the range is currently limited, because of the challenges associated with cooling.

European team announces superconductivity breakthrough[311]. European researchers said they had developed a cheaper and more efficient superconducting tape which could one day be used to double the potency of wind turbines. It could also be used to conduct electrical power over long distances, with very low losses.

High temperature superconductors

So called high Tc superconductors (HTS), meaning the material superconducts at temperatures above liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 Kelvin, are now commercially available as tapes.[312]

One form of these cuprate superconducting materials [313] is called Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO), and is often referred to as rare-earth barium copper oxide (REBCO).[314]

The performance of REBCO tape is already good enough for application within HTS magnets for nuclear fusion reactors. Nuclear fusion researchers believe HTS magnets, which remain superconducting under strong magnetic fields, are the core breakthrough required for engineering tokamak and stellarator designs to meet breakeven energy production in fusion reactors much smaller than ITER scale.[315] [316]

Room temperature superconductors

The race is on to produce room temperature superconductors, but they have not been found and commercialised yet.

If we're able to harness the powers of superconductivity at room temperature, we could transform how energy is produced, stored, distributed and used around the globe[317].

For example:

  • Store intermittent renewable energy for later use
  • Transfer this energy over vast distances

Superconducting coils could hold electrical currents generated by intermittent sources of renewable power such as solar, tidal, wind, and wave. This energy could be fed into the electricity grid at a later time when demand rises.

Superconducting cables could transfer electrical power over long distances, without the need for high voltage pylons. In the same way that we transfer Internet data packets across the world via cables, we could, perhaps, shift renewable power from one country to another, and perhaps from one continent to another.

These two attributes mean that renewable power sources could be shared across countries and across the globe. For example, large scale solar farms in each of the world's major deserts could generate enough energy to meet the world's energy needs; and superconductors could play the key role in its storage and distribution.

A theory recently posted in a pre-print paper from the California Institute of Technology points to how high temperature cuprate superconductors could be designed for a superconducting temperature of up to 390 Kelvin, well above room temperature of ~300 Kelvin.[318] The proposed results have not been experimentally tested, yet this is a promising development which warrants further research. A pre-print paper posted by researchers from Tokai University in Japan hints at the possibility of room temperature superconductivity in common graphite dosed with n-alkanes.[319]

If independently confirmed as room temperature superconducting material this result is astonishing since the materials are so common and low cost.

It has also been speculated that metallic hydrogen might be a room temperature superconductor, but the material can only be formed under extreme pressure. However, it has been successfully created at Harvard[320].

Cost savings

Based on UK data [see Power Distribution Grid], transmission losses are about 8 percent. This means that up to 8 percent of the transmission cost might be saved if superconductors could remove the need for transformers and high voltages.

Thorium Energy

With Thorium you can hold a lifetime's energy supply in the palm of your hand! That is how little thorium you need to power a western lifestyle for a lifetime.

Thorium is an entirely natural element found in nature. It exists in small quantities in rocks and the soil. In several locations it exists in high concentrations (about 10%), and can therefore be mined easily. However, thorium is today considered a (problematic to to its radioactivity) by-product when mining several essential products such as copper and Rare Earths.

It has been estimated that 30 times more thorium than what is required to supply the entire world's energy demand is mined as a by-product every year and not used but mostly put back in the ground as waste.

There is more energy available in Thorium in the Earth's crust than all coal, gas, oil and uranium combined.

(Related) Today's best science estimates that about 30% of the energy production inside Earth comes from thorium. This energy is what keeps the core of the Earth molten. The molten core drives the tectonic plate movement, which in turn drives the Earth's CO2 cycle (yes, life and our fossil burning drives it as well) and produces the magnetic field surrounding Earth. If this extra energy would not have been produced, the carbon would slowly be extracted from our atmosphere, leading to the end of the CO2 and oxygen exchange all life depends on. Further, it would slowly weaken the magnetic field. At some point the solar wind would 'blow' away the atmosphere (this is likely to have happened on the planet Mars) all life depends on.

In conclusion, energy generated by thorium is natural and essential to life on our planet - we would not be here without it.

Thorium Energy World

What would a world powered by Thorium Energy produced in TMSRs look like?

Imagine all the world's power stations (about 2.000) that today run on fossil fuel, and today's nuclear reactors being replaced by up and running TMSRs. You would have thousands of TMSRs producing CO2 and pollution free energy in a safe manner. The thorium fuel would be shipped yearly to each TMSR. A town of 1 million people in the U.S. would need one TMSR producing 1GWe. This TMSR would be sent a thorium fuel the size of a bowling ball each year. Imagine a couple of thousand TMSRs being shipped thorium fuel the size of a bowling ball each every year to power the entire planet.

Balance with renewables...

Economics

Thorium can uniquely deliver an energy system infrastructure based on the TMSR that provides clean and abundant energy for all.

Yes, the investment to build the first TMSR is considerable (estimated to be around USD 1B). But once this investment has been done, and we mass produce the reactor much like we do with airplanes today, the price per TMSR would be very low.

The major reasons for this are the overall low resource demand per TMSR and that even the largest component can be transported to the construction site. This leads to mass production in a factory compared to building an industry on each site of construction.

The second major reason the TMSR will be so affordable is that they are 'walk-away safe'. This means that the operators can leave the reactor and the power can be shut off and the TMSR will automatically shut itself off.

The third major reason the TMSR will be so cheap is that it burns the abundant thorium fuel very efficiently. First of all, this means the fuel cost is close to nothing (the material is cheap and you need no fuel fabrication). Secondly, the waste produced is as small as it can be. A TMSR that powers a town in the U.S. of 1 million people would produce waste (we don't even call it waste but decomposed thorium) the size of a bowling ball. 80% of this will have a radioactivity below natural uranium ore levels in 10 years. The remaining 20% will have a radioactivity below natural uranium ore levels in 300 years. Yes, 300 years is a long time but surely we can take care of that. This means that the waste is about 1000 times smaller in both volume and time it lasts when compared to uranium.

There are many other reasons for the TMSR to produce cheap electricity (and heat) such as the fact that it doesn't require water for cooling (you can then place the reactor anywhere in the world), by-products such as desalination or fuel synthesis, long learning curve since the power source lasts for thousands of years, plug and play with existing electricity grid, thorium is found on all continents (eliminates fuel monopoly), load following capability ... and so on.

Startup

Yes, starting these TMSRs would require a starting fuel or spallation neutrons (one is a proliferation material and the other a potential proliferation technology). However, each reactor is only started once leading only to one proliferation event per TMSR. Once they are up and running, they can basically run forever. This is achieved by using the extraordinary safety feature of the TMSR: you simply drain the fuel into a separate tank. When that is done, you can replace the system's core with a new one. This process can be repeated indefinitely.

Waste

(we don't even call it waste but decomposed thorium resulting in other atoms such as )

A TMSR that powers a town in U.S. of 1 million people would produce waste the size of a bowling ball. 80% of this will have a radioactivity below natural uranium ore levels in 10 years. The remaining 20% will have a radioactivity below natural uranium ore levels in 300 years. Yes, 300 years is a long time but surely we can take care of that. This means that the waste is about 1000 times smaller in both volume and time it lasts compared to uranium.

Challenges

The science of the TMSR is well known and experiments are under way and there was substantial experience gained in the 60th when two reactor experiments were designed, built and operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

However, there are many challenges facing the optimal implementation of Thorium Energy from the TMSR. These can be divided into technical and non-technical:

Licensing

Many countries do not offer rules for how to implement a non LWR technology.

Perception and Acceptance

The general perception of nuclear is based on the performance of LWRs which has lead to poor acceptance.

The solution to this is believed to be education.

Financing

Due to lack of public acceptance financing is unwilling to engage in most things nuclear because they believe they are all the same, like LWRs.

Technical Challenges

The two most important technologies to master to overcome these challenges are ‘liquid fuel and cooling’ and ‘material integrity’.

Processing

To reach a high thorium fuel efficiency one needs to process the salt to remove fission products and extract U233.

Salts

To be able to model a reactor accurately before building it the characteristics of the salt options must be well known.

Materials

The inner structure of the reactor must to a certain acceptable degree withstand the harsh environment with: corrosive salt, high temperature and high neutron flux.

Brayton cycle

To fully optimize the TMSR one would like to utilize the Brayton cycle, this increases the energy conversion ratio.

Startup neutrons

Since no reactor can be started on pure thorium one needs to add neutrons from another source. To scale up the production of Thorium Energy one need to also scale up the neutron source (could be nuclear waste, uranium, plutonium or spallation neutrons).

Much work is ongoing around the world to solve both the technical and non-technical challenges. The additional focus an X Prize would produce would substantially elevate the efforts.

The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor

The most promising method to extract the energy of thorium is through the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR). The TMSR presents a fundamental transformation concerning the four cornerstones of nuclear energy; safety, efficiency, waste and proliferation.

Working Principle

In the TMSR there are no solid fuel rods and the fuel is instead liquid. The fertile and fissile material is combined with a fluoride carrier salt which forms a fluid, with fertile ThF4 and fissile 233UF4. The function of the salt is threefold [321]:

  1. It is the fuel element, i.e. it produces energy.
  2. It is the coolant, the heat transfer medium.
  3. It is the fuel-processing medium, i.e. within it reprocessing of the fuel can be performed.

The liquid circulates between the critical reactor core and a heat exchanger in the primary loop. A secondary coolant salt transfers heat to steam which drives a turbine which in turn generates electricity. The fluoride salt possesses several attractive properties for use in a nuclear reactor. For instance, it has a 25% higher volumetric heat capacity than pressurized water and can be kept melted during operational conditions in ambient pressure [322].

The Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a successful molten salt reactor experiment between 1965-1969. This reactor used a single fluid design, i.e. fertile and fissile salt mixed together. A two-fluid design, where the fertile ThF4 and UF4 are completely separated, is today the more attractive choice. In such designs a blanket salt of ThF4 comprises a separate loop where bred U-233 can be chemically separated from the ThF4 and subsequently injected into the core. The term widely used for this specific TMSR design which uses a Th-U-233 fuel cycle and fluoride salts is Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors (LFTR) [323]. A comprehensive introduction to the LFTR can for example be found on Wikipedia.

Fuel efficiency

The LFTR will be much more fuel efficient than the solid fuel reactors. While the fuel rods in a traditional light water reactor need to be replaced after only 3% of the uranium has been consumed the LFTR only needs to burn 6 kg of thorium to reach the same produced energy as 300 kg of enriched uranium in the LWR. In the LFTR fuel rod replacements are not needed and new fuel is instead bred by adding more ThF4 to the blanket salt [324].

Waste

The large fuel efficiency combined with U-233 as a fuel drastically lowers the amount of long-lived nuclear waste. The waste will to almost 100% consist of created fission products. These products can be chemically separated from the fuel salt and the radioactive waste only needs to be stored for around 300 years [325].

Safety and proliferation

There are several advantageous safety perspectives with the TMSR, some of these are presented in the following. Meltdown in a TMSR is by definition not possible since the fuel is always melted. Due to operation in ambient pressure without water, steam and hydrogen explosions are not possible. As the melting temperature of the fuel salt is 1670 K compared to operation temperature of 973 K and the fact that the MSR has a large prompt negative temperature coefficient, the pressure of the system cannot increase. A thorough safety assessment can be found here: [326].

Nuclear weapon proliferation on the basis of a TMSR is difficult. First of all the common isotope used in nuclear bombs, Pu-239 is not produced in large enough quantities. Secondly, U-233 always comes with U-232 which is a highly radioactive isotope and is not feasible to work with or possible to smuggle without detection [327].

Background of thorium as an element and the TMSR technology

The element thorium was discovered in 1828. More than a 100 years later, in 1941, its potential as a fuel source was proved.  Thorium is estimated to be three to four times more abundant than uranium in the Earth’s crust and it is one of the most energy dense elements found in nature. The element has some favorable characteristics making it an ideal nuclear fuel for next generation reactors; it is safe, clean, affordable and scalable. It is estimated that a lifetime's energy need of each one of us on this planet can be generated from an amount of thorium that fits in the palm of your hand.

Timeline

1828 - Thorium is identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius and named after the Norse god of thunder - Thor.

1941 - Nobel Prize laureate Glen Seaborg proves thorium's nuclear fuel potential.

1955 to 1973 - Alvin Weinberg, the director of the US nuclear research laboratory Oak Ridge, (ORNL), conducts research on the use of thorium in molten salt reactors (MSR’s) with successful results.

1950’s - India’s three-stage nuclear power programme is formulated by Dr. Homi Bhabha, with an ultimate focus on utilizing the country’s vast thorium reserves.

2010 to 11 - Jian Mianheng, son of former Chinese president Jian Zemin, announced the Chinese Thorium Energy Program to develop the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor.

Early research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

​In the 1950’s, a significant  thorium research program led by Alvin Weinberg was started in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, US. The program  researched the use of thorium in molten salt reactors (MSRs), with successful and well-documented results. For 20 years, thorium was researched alongside uranium as a nuclear fuel.

A 1962 report highlighted a recommendation to pursue civilian nuclear power not with uranium as the raw fuel but with thorium. However, amid lobbying by companies vested heavily in uranium-fed, solid-fuel, water-cooled reactors, there wasn’t enough support in Congress to follow through the AEC’s recommendation.

In 1973, thorium-related nuclear research was, however, shut down as the government chose to continue with uranium-based reactors only.

In October 2016, Oak Ridge National Laboratory published an interesting video showing its vision and work from the ‘glory days.

Current State of the Technology

There are several private and government led development initiatives around the TMSR technology.

Feasibility studies and significant publications

Program on Technology Innovation: Technology Assessment of a Molten Salt Reactor Design -- The Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR)

EPRI collaborated with Southern Company, Flibe Energy and Teledyne Brown Engineering on an independent technology assessment of an innovative molten salt reactor (MSR) design—the liquid-fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR)—as a potentially transformational technology for meeting future energy needs in the face of uncertain market, policy, and regulatory constraints.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publishes ThorCon’s white paper

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published details of the ThorCon liquid fission power plant on IAEA's go-to web site for advanced power reactors, ARIS. ThorCon gigawatt MSR power plants deliver energy cheaper than coal and can be mass produced by shipyards after demonstration in Indonesia.

One new feature is the ThorConIsle version, a complete 2 x 250 MW power plant built in a hull, then towed to a near-shore site and securely ballasted down to the sea floor. This ThorCon version will be the prototype liquid fission power plant for Indonesia.

Another newly announced capability is prolonged passive decay heat cooling, so that even if all power and instrumentation is lost [station blackout] the liquid fission power plant can remain safely unattended for at least a year.

Energy Process Developments study on MSR technologies

A year long study by Energy Process Developments to determine the feasibility of developing a pilot scale molten salt reactor in the UK reviewed six MSR designs: Flibe Energy, ThorCon, Moltex, Seaborg Technologies, Terrestrial Energy and Transatomic Power. The study was published in August 2015.

Rory O’Sullivan concludes their study: “The MSR scene globally has changed dramatically over the past few years. Several start-ups have come up with innovative designs that have put MSRs on the top table of innovative energy solutions. These come at a needed time with climate change higher on the agenda than ever. Their enthusiasm and drive to make their proposals happen will hopefully result in a different energy mix in 20 years with a much better outlook on climate change than today”.

Moltex’s Stable Salt Reactor was identified to be the most suitable configuration for immediate pilot scale development in the UK. All six designs were seen as valid proposals at this early stage of design.

In addition to reviewing the MSR designs, the report includes a comparison of other advanced reactor concepts, a review of the historical and current background, information about liquid fueled reactors and the related science and engineering.

Developers

Private companies

Copenhagen Atomics

Copenhagen Atomics is an organization, which is best described as a half-breed between a start-up company and a political organization. New team members who join the organization must agree to work towards a common long-term goal: Create a MSR-based machine, preferably in a 40 ft shipping container, called the Copenhagen Atomics Wasteburner (CAWB).

The CAWB will use thorium to burn out actinides from spent nuclear fuel in order to convert long-lived radioactive waste into short-lived radioactive waste, while producing large amounts of energy and jobs in present time. Our hope is to be able to optimize the CAWB enough, so that it can start on spent nuclear fuel alone. Alternatively, we will need to add enriched fuel.

The long-term goal is to produce more than one CAWB every day in a central factory, and to be able to recycle the used CAWB’s in a few decommissioning factories around the world. The first version of CAWB will be 50 MWt but our goal is to continue to improve the technology over many generations to achieve higher output, better efficiency and less waste. By making the design modular and an open standard, we hope to achieve many of the same benefits, which fueled the PC industry in its early years.

Flibe Energy

Flibe Energy was incorporated in April 2011 to develop and commercialize the liquid-fluoride thorium reactor. Although based in Huntsville, Alabama, USA, it also has business development operations in Singapore. LFTR technology has excited the world and is becoming synonymous with the more general term “thorium reactor”. Flibe representatives are frequently requested to present at venues across the world.

Flibe Energy is currently completing a conceptual study of the LFTR funded by a major non-profit research institute in the United States.

In 2014, Flibe Energy commenced a funded study of the LFTR design which has enhanced the understanding of the potential and the challenges of this approach.

Flibe Energy will complete their funded study and will use the results to attract more resources to build on this study and to enhance the technical fidelity of the LFTR design. Flibe will seek support in this effort from potential partners in the United States and in other countries.

Moltex

Moltex Energy LLP owns the intellectual property rights to a novel and very low capital cost molten salt reactor capable of simple construction. The company’s strategy is to license this intellectual property in such a way as to achieve rapid global commercialization of the technology leading to meaningful reductions in global CO2 emissions. This reactor is in principle capable of operating using the thorium/uranium fuel cycle but will initially use the more familiar plutonium/uranium cycle.

A robust portfolio of patents were filed during the year, both in the UK and internationally. The key patent, protecting the use of static (un-pumped) molten salt fuel in a nuclear reactor was granted in the UK in December 2014, having been progressed through the UK ”Green technology” fast track route.

A comprehensive technical dossier covering regulatory issues, estimated capital costs, neutronic performance, thermal hydraulic performance and materials performance has been completed and will be the basis for a prospectus offering the intellectual property for sale globally in early 2015.

SAMOFAR (Safety Assessment of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor)

SAMOFAR consortium consists of 11 participants. This fundamental part is mainly executed by universities and research laboratories, like CNRS, JRC, CIRTEN, TU Delft and PSI, thereby exploiting each other’s unique expertise and infrastructure.

Partners

CNRS is a research institute with many branches and with strong expertise on the MSFR reactor design and integral safety assessment, and on experimental research with molten salts, both in the field of physics (loop experiments) and chemistry (chemical separation processes). JRC is leading in Europe with fundamental experimental research on molten salt thermo-dynamics and chemistry. It has an excellent infrastructure to investigate actinide-containing molten salts. CIRTEN has a strong reputation in experimental thermal-hydraulics and loop-dynamics as well as in numerical reactor design. TU Delft is an expert in fundamental experimental thermal-hydraulics and computational reactor physics. PSI is the leading Swiss institute on nuclear research with broad expertise, like the structural mechanics effects of some transients. CINVESTAV is the Mexican institute with strong materials expertise. All academic partners also strongly contribute to the education and training part of SAMOFAR.

Industry

Besides the work of fundamental nature, the input of TSO’s, industry and utilities is part of SAMOFAR as well. IRSN is the leading French TSO contributing strongly to the design of the integral safety assessment method. AREVA is Europe’s largest nuclear industry with huge experience on the reactor design, safety assessment and industrial standards. KIT and EDF will contribute with the industrially adopted safety assessment code SIMMER. CEA has many multi-disciplinary experts who will contribute to the complex multi-disciplinary design of the chemical plant combining chemical, nuclear, radiological and other industrial process technologies. The combined approach of the academic and industrial partners ensure the uptake of fundamental results into the industrial design processes and standards needed for the successful exploitation of the results.

Goals

The grand objective of SAMOFAR is to prove the innovative safety concepts of the MSFR by advanced experimental and numerical techniques, to deliver a breakthrough in nuclear safety and optimal waste management, and to create a consortium of stakeholders. SAMOFAR will prove the key safety features, like:

  • The freeze plug and draining of the fuel salt
  • Measurement of safety-related data of the fuel salt
  • New coatings to structural materials like Ni-based alloys
  • The dynamics of natural circulation of (internally heated) fuel salts
  • The reductive processes to extract lanthanides and actinides from the fuel salt

Seaborg Technologies

Seaborg Technologies is a Danish company developing the core for a Molten Salt Waste-burner (MSW). The MSW is a high temperature, single salt, thermal MSR designed to go critical on a combination of thorium and nuclear waste from conventional nuclear reactors. Seaborg's mission is to rid the world of its nuclear waste in a safe and sustainable way. The company’s MSW design is modular. The reactor core is estimated to be replaced every 6–10 years. However, the fuel will not be replaced and will burn for the entire power plant lifetime. The first version of the Seaborg core is planned to produce 50 MWth power and could consume approximately 1 ton (not considering natural decays) of transuranic waste over its 60 years power plant lifetime. After 60 years the 233U concentration in the fuel salt is high enough to initiate a closed thorium fuel cycle in the next generation power plant.

ThorCon

Martingale has developed ThorCon - a safe, simple molten salt reactor that can be rapidly deployed using available technology and shipyard factory construction techniques. The design is ready for construction, and can be on-line within 4 years of establishing a relationship with a cooperative country.

The design is essentially complete in the sense that we are nearly ready for quoting module fabrication at a modern shipyard. 3D models and detailed simulations support nearly all aspects of the design. Detailed costing models and rough construction schedules are available at the company website.

Transatomic Power

Transatomic Power’s overarching goal is to raise global standards of living by bringing the world clean, low-cost electricity. The company’s advanced molten salt reactors dramatically reduce the cost of nuclear power with a streamlined, passively safe, and proliferation-resistant design. The reactors have the flexibility to consume both the used nuclear fuel generated by commercial light water reactors and low-enriched freshly mined uranium. The main differences between Transatomic’s molten salt reactor and previous molten salt reactors are its metal hydride moderator, clad with a silicon carbide-based composite, and LiF-(Heavy metal)F4 fuel salt. These features allow the company to make their reactor more compact and generate electricity at lower cost than other designs.

Transatomic is backed by Peter Thiel’s Founders Fund, a San Francisco based venture capital firm that emphasizes transformational technologies and companies. Other investors include Acadia Woods Partners, Daniel Aegerter of Armada Investment AG, Ray Rothrock of Venrock, and other individuals. Their impressive advisory board includes the former Chief Technology Officer of Westinghouse, the deputy director of the Idaho National Lab, the 2012 - 2013 President of the American Nuclear Society, and the head of MIT’s Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering. Transatomic is based in Kendall Square in Cambridge, MA, USA.

In 2014, Transatomic finished the preliminary design of its reactor, and began experimental testing of key materials and components. Corrosion, radiation, and high-temperature materials testing are being conducted under a three-year sponsored research agreement with the Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Transatomic also raised $2.1 million in funding in 2014, in a venture round led by Peter Thiel’s Founders Fund. In January 2015, Transatomic raised an additional $2.5 million in an oversubscribed round.

Elysium Industries

Elysium Industries’ vision is to produce safe, cost effective, and carbon conscious energy through the development of liquid-fueled molten salt reactors. The company was founded in 2015 and is headquartered in Vancouver, BC. Elysium hopes to have a working prototype in the next five to seven years and begin mass manufacturing them in eight to 10 years.

Others

Add to this list of developers several who have not been yet been announced or incorporated, or for other reasons have decided to work 'under the radar'.

Governments

India

India has modest uranium reserves, whereas it has one of the largest thorium reserves in the world. Thorium, despite its greater abundance in nature and a number of superior characteristics, lags behind use of uranium as it does not have any fissile content. The fertile thorium-232 has to be converted into uranium-233 first for use in a nuclear reactor.

Considering the country’s vast thorium resources, the long-term nuclear energy policy of India has been focused on utilization of thorium early on. A three-stage nuclear power program was drafted already in the 1950’s.

The first stage makes use of the limited uranium resources, most optimally in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) to produce energy as well as plutonium. In the second stage, this plutonium is to be used in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) to generate power and also to produce additional plutonium from depleted uranium. This helps in multiplying the fissile resources as well as the installed nuclear electricity generation capacity. When the required capacity addition has been achieved, at an optimal time, thorium is to be introduced in the blankets of FBRs to produce uranium-233. The third stage of the Indian nuclear power program contemplates using this generated uranium-233 in advanced self-sustaining thorium-based reactors. However, the time frame in which thorium can be deployed has to be carefully selected. Introducing thorium in the first stage or early in the second stage of the programme will adversely affect the rate of growth of the nuclear power generation capacity. The large scale deployment of thorium is therefore expected to be about three to four decades after the commercial operation of Fast Breeder Reactors with short doubling time, when thorium can be introduced to generate uranium-233.

All efforts in technology development and demonstration aim at having a mature technology available in time. A road map for developing technologies for the third stage has been evolved to meet objectives in medium as well as long-term time frames.

An important element in this roadmap includes demonstrating the use of thorium on an industrial scale in Advanced Heavy Water Reactors (AHWR). This has the benefit of adopting many of the mature technologies currently in use in existing reactor systems, and will provide a platform for developing advanced thorium cycle technologies. The AHWR is a 300 MWe new generation boiling light water cooled and heavy water moderated vertical pressure tube type reactor. The reactor is designed with the dual objective of utilization of abundant thorium resources and to meet the future demands to nuclear power such as enhanced safety and reliability, improved economics and a high level of proliferation resistance. It has many passive and inherently safe features so that the reactor can be located close to population centres.

The experience from the AHWR will be an important step towards development of long-term sustainable thorium-based systems. One of the most efficient systems to utilise uranium-233 is the self sustaining Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs). This is being considered as an attractive option for large-scale deployment in the third stage, and studies on conceptual design of the Indian Molten Salt Breeder Reactors (IMSBR) have been initiated.

China

'China’s dream to develop a thorium based MSR is half a century old. China initially launched TMSR research in 1970s, but it was terminated due to technical restrictions. At the beginning of this century, research on MSRs has drawn fresh attention around the globe. The MSR-LF and MSR-SF have characteristics and applications including Thorium energy utilization, hydrogen production at high temperature, water-free cooling and small modular design. These properties make MSR one of the best approaches to solve the energy and environment issues of China.' -Prof. Hongjie Xu

In January 2011, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) nuclear energy system research program as one of the five Strategic Pioneer Science & Technology Projects to meet China’s major strategic needs.

In 2013, the National Energy Administration included the TMSR project among the 25 “National Energy Major Application-Technology Research and Demonstration Projects” in its “Plan of Energy Development Strategy”.

In 2014, the local government of Shanghai launched a major TMSR project to support the TMSR technology development. The TMSR project intends to solve major technological challenges in thorium-uranium (Th-U) fuel cycle and thorium-based molten salt reactors, and to realize effective utilization of thorium and composite utilization of nuclear energy in 20-30 years.

The validation and implementation of the TMSR program will provide a feasible solution to ensure national energy security, promote energy saving, and reduce CO2 emissions in China.

Development and Commercialization of the TMSR

The TMSR program is divided into three stages:

Early Stage

The goal of the Early Stage is to master the key technology and obtain the equipment manufacturing capacity of TMSRs. This phase covers the TMSR design capability, R&D of molten salt manufacture and loop technology, R&D of the front-end and back-end of the Th-U fuel cycle, R&D of high-temperature durable materials, and R&D of safety standards and licensing.

During the Early Stage, the first 10MW Th solid-fueled molten salt test reactor (TMSR- SF1) will be constructed and will realize full power operation. The first 2MW liquid-fueled molten salt experimental reactor (TMSR-LF1) with pyro-process function (trace level) will also be constructed and reach criticality.

Engineering Experimental Stage

In the Engineering Experimental Stage, the main goals are to construct a 100MW solid-fueled TMSR demonstration system (TMSR-SF2) and a 10MW liquid-fueled molten salt experimental reactor (TMSR-LF2) with pyro-process function.

Industrial Promotion Stage

In the Industrial Promotion Stage, the commercialization of the TMSR-SF will be promoted step by step, based on the R&D foundation from the previous stages.

Utilization of thorium in MSRs can be realized step by step depending on the fuel cycle modes and related technology development. TMSR-SF can be operated in once-through fuel cycle for simplicity. In principle, thorium utilization can be realized in the TMSR-LF with the modified open or even fully closed fuel cycle.

Achievements in 2014

The TMSR project has carried out research work and achieved some results in key technologies including conceptual designs of experimental TMSRs, development of fuel reprocessing technologies, establishment of experimental platforms, and theoretical researches.

Foreign cooperation has progressed steadily. The TMSR center has productively cooperated with the American Nuclear Society (ANS) in setting the safety standards for the TMSR-SF, and with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in setting the material processing standards for high-temperature reactors.

A set of methods and tools for the design and analysis of the TMSRs has been built. Preliminary analyses of thorium utilization in commercial scale TMSR-SF/LFs were carried out under the optimization of core geometry and fuel management. The analysis shows that TMSR-LF has favorable characteristics to realize thorium utilization in a thermal spectrum by combining with on-line removal of the fission products and on-line separation of 233 Pa to improve the conversion ratio. TMSR-SF can use small amounts of thorium compared to TMSR-LF. However, it is possible to improve the burnup and the thorium utilization in a TMSR-SF by introducing in-operation fuel pebble recycling.

Based on the TMSR design platform built so far, the design of the 2MW TMSR-LF1 and the world’s first 10MW TMSR-SF1 has begun. The goal of the TMSR-SF1 and TMSR-LF1 is to realize the integration, construction, operation and maintenance of the TMSR system, verify the physical behaviors, thermal-hydraulic and intrinsic safety characteristics, and provide a comprehensive experimental platform for the design of future demonstration and commercial reactors.

Equipment development

Due to lack of mature equipment, the TMSR research team has focused attention on this issue, and successfully developed a high-temperature molten salt pump, a molten-salt-to-air exchanger, molten salt frozen valves, and other key equipment.

A series of tests has been finished, including an equipment performance test, loop technical identification, a heat transfer experiment, and a test of the compatibility of the salt with nickel-based alloy. In particular, the system design, construction, and operation of a Nitrate Salt Forced Circulation Loop, a FliNaK Experiment Loop and a Nitrate Salt Natural Circulation Loop have been accomplished.

Thorium fuel standardization and analysis

Research on thorium based fuels has achieved some progress. Standards for inspection and quality control of thorium fuel are under investigation. The trace boron determining method was developed based on ICP-OES analysis with detection limit of 0.2 ppm. High quality ThO2 and ThF4 were prepared with the total equivalent boron content being less than 4 ppm. Analysis procedures for more than 40 trace impurities in ThO2 and ThF4 powders were established.

For solid fuel fabrication, the preparation of ThO2 kernel particles by using the sol-gel method was successful. Preliminary compatibility tests of graphite matrix of TRISO spherical fuel element with fluoride salt were carried out under the operation conditions designed for TMSR-SF. It indicated that the mass change of the fuel matrix were negligible.

For liquid fuel fabrication, the produced fuel salts have been purified by being bubbled with HF-H2 mixture gases. A 5kg grade purification equipment was developed and the HF-H2 process was successfully conducted in this equipment. The FLiNaK product showed a good compatibility with the reactor alloy materials. The oxygen content in the FLiNaK product determined by LECO oxygen analyzer was below 100 ppm.

Separation methods

A process flow sheet for the TMSR fuel cycle has been designed. The goal of this flow sheet is to separate and recycle the most valuable UF4 and carrier salts on-line using pyroprocessing techniques. The fluoride volatility method (separation of U) and low-pressure distillation (separation of LiF and BeF2) are the crucial ones in the above-mentioned flow sheet. Such a process not only reduces the intensity and difficulty of on-site fuel processing, but also recycles precious 7LiF in time to reduce the inventory on-site. The research focuses on the above two methods as well as on electrochemical separation because of its versatile applications. 

Fluoride Volatility Technology

For the fluoride volatility technology, a pathway has been determined that includes IR spectroscopy to monitor the process, an absorption method to purify the products, and gradient condensation to collect the volatilized UF6. A series of experiments has proven that UF6 can be recovered using the fluoride volatility process from UF4 powder or eutectic UF4-FKZr, which is similar to true fuel system, and the recovery ratio of U is over 95%. 

Distillation Technology

For distillation technology, kilogram-scale distillation of FLiNaK was performed at a horizontal distillation facility with a large evaporation surface. The evaporation rate of FLiNaK reached 1 kg/hr, and the collection efficiency was more than 94%. It suggested that the application of low-pressure distillation for purification and recovery of the carrier fluoride salts is feasible. Furthermore, the factors that affect the collection efficiency and the purity of the recovered salt were identified. 

Electrochemical Separation

The progress of electrochemical separation concentrates on separation of U and Th from various molten salts. The reduction sequences of REs, U, and Th in some kind of molten salts have been determined. At the state of the art, the recovery ratio of U in LiF-BeF2 is over 92%. A parallel electrolysis recovery of U in LiCl-KCl achieved a recovery ratio of over 98%. Electrolysis of LiCl-KCl-ThF4 is also conducted, where the recovery ratio of Th is over 90%.

Structural Material Development

The Ni-based alloys are considered to be the primary option for metallic structural materials in TMSR, after discussing several candidates. A high-temperature Ni-based alloy (GH3535) has been developed and its conventional performance parameters have reached those of Hastelloy N alloy made in the US. The small-scale and pilot-scale production of GH3535 alloy has been completed and the technology for mass-production has been established. 

Furthermore, the TMSR team has developed plastics-processing technologies of nickel-based alloys, e.g. the hot extrusion and rolling process technology of large-caliber pipe for reactor primary loop as well as the TIG welding technology for thick plates that meet the requirements of ASME-NB. The accumulation of these key technologies ensures the successful application of GH3535 alloy in reactor vessel, loops and control rod sleeves of the first TMSR. 

To meet the demand of the neutron reflector, the TMSR team has improved the fabrication technology of isostatic graphite. The first nuclear graphite NG-CT-10 has been jointly developed and will be ready for mass-production in 2015. Furthermore, a super-fine grained graphite (NG-CT-50) with the dimensions of D400 × 400 mm3 has been developed in order to meet future requirements. This graphite possesses high density, high graphitization degree and other excellent properties such as high bending strength, high compressive strength, low porosity, small median pore diameter (740 nm), and low boron content (<0.05 ppm). It shows that the newly developed nuclear graphite could effectively reduce the leakage of high energy neutrons from the core. The irradiation experiments for nuclear graphite will also be carried out in months. This radiation data enables scientists to understand the mechanism of radiation-induced degradation of materials and confirm the safety of TMSR during its lifetime.

Cooperation

China and the US

A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between TMSR and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been signed, where the technical support from ORNL will be beneficial to the TMSR project.

Cooperation with MIT and INL will also be promoted in 2015.

ThorCon and Indonesia

In December 2015, Indonesia signed a memorandum of understanding with ThorCon to develop thorium molten salt reactors. The resulting Indonesia Thorium Consortium has three partners from the Indonesian side.

The memorandum was signed in Washington DC between ThorCon three Indonesian companies:

PT Industry Nuklir Indonesia (INUKI) is the state-owned nuclear fuel processing company.

PT PLN is the state-owned power generation company.

PT Pertamina is the state oil and gas giant which is now looking at nuclear and other forms of energy.

Together these companies have formed the Indonesia Thorium Consortium whose purpose is the development and implementation of thorium molten salt reactors based on the ThorCon design.The first plant is scheduled to be commissioned in 2021. INUKI with its license to import nuclear fuel will provide the thorium and uranium as required. Pertamina will provide its expertise in moving large scale power projects from cradle to maturity and help navigate the governmental bureaucracy. PLN will provide its expertise regarding siting the plant and connecting with the grid. Importantly, PLN will buy the power generated.

​Indonesia is the world’s leading producer of tin, and part of the waste from tin mining is monazite, containing thorium. ‘Indonesia has an abundance of monazite which could last for the next 1000 years, securing Indonesia’s energy supply if the thorium is used as a nuclear fuel’, says Dr. Yudiutomo Imardjoko, CEO of the Indonesian Nuclear Company (INUKI).

Why did Indonesia choose the molten salt reactor amongst the different thorium reactor types? There are three features Mr. Imardjoko highlights: passive safety, modularity and cost compared to coal. ‘We know that we have to go with a generation IV design which has a passive safety system build into the design. It has to be modular, and compete with coal in term of its economics. So the choice is either a HTGR type reactor with a Triso Fuel or The Molten Salt reactor. The HTGR is a complex design and the Triso fuel is difficult to manufacture. I don’t think we have the capability to manufacture the Triso fuel which means we have to import it. The MSR has a simple design, which I think is the simplest design among all the Gen IV reactors. Its fuel is liquid which makes it easy to manufacture and the simplicity of the design makes it very economical to build and to operate - at least on paper the economics could compete with coal’ says Mr. Imardjoko.

Indonesia is aiming for thorium energy to become a significant part of the country’s energy mix, thus contributing its share in the efforts against climate change. ‘We are not planning to just to build one or two reactors. We are aiming for at least a 20% share of the energy mix by 2050, otherwise we are not addressing the climate change correctly’, says Mr. Imardjoko.

In their choice of a design amongst the MSRs currently under development, time to market was a key determinant. ‘We have reviewed all the MSR designs that are currently being developed and we think that the ThorCon design has the right formula to be able to be deploy in the 4 – 5 year time frame’, sums Mr. Imardjoko. ‘It is an elegant design which allows for construction using ship yard techniques. This results in great savings in cost and time. It is a very practical and realistic design allowing for ease of operation and maintenance. The plant is very safe with completely passive shut-down capability. ThorCon just takes the proven ORNL design and scales it up without any new research’ he continues.

Mr. Imardjoko is impressed with the ‘ship yard’ manufacturing concept ThorCon plans to use. ‘ThorCon estimates that 1000 MW can be manufactured in a year and within 5 years of operation, they believe it can be scaled up to 5 GW per year. If this is true, it will solve Indonesia’s energy crisis. We need to increase the power generation fast to keep up with the rest of the Asean countries which already are above 90% electrification’, he sums the urgency of increased energy supply in Indonesia.

IAEA MSR Platform

As several member countries have expressed their MSR interest to the IAEA, it has now decided to provide an international MSR specific platform to foster development. We are witnessing a growing understanding by people who are concerned about energy that nuclear will be a key player in our future energy mix and that nuclear as we know it can transform through development into an attractive energy source. As more people ask their countries to do the right thing, we are sure that more countries will join the international movement to develop a thorium based energy future. If MSR will be the winning technology platform, remains to be seen.

Experts from 17 countries laid the foundations last week for enhanced international cooperation on a technology that promises to deliver nuclear power with a lower risk of severe accidents, helping to decrease the world’s dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate climate change.

Molten salt reactors – nuclear power reactors that use liquid salt as primary coolant or a molten salt mixture as fuel – have many favourable characteristics for nuclear safety and sustainability. The concept was developed in the 1960s, but put aside in favour of what has become mainstream nuclear technology since. In recent years, however, technological advances have led to growing interest in molten salt technology and to the launch of new initiatives. The technology needs at least a decade of further intensive research, validation and qualification before commercialization.

“It is the first time a comprehensive IAEA international meeting on molten salt reactors has ever taken place,” said Stefano Monti, Head of the Nuclear Power Development Section at the IAEA. “Given the interest of Member States, the IAEA could provide a platform for international cooperation and information exchange on the development of these advanced nuclear systems.”

Molten salt reactors operate at higher temperatures, making them more efficient in generating electricity. In addition, their low operating pressure can reduce the risk of coolant loss, which could otherwise result in an accident. Molten salt reactors can run on various types of nuclear fuel and use different fuel cycles. This conserves fuel resources and reduces the volume, radiotoxicity and lifetime of high-level radioactive waste.

Molten salt reactor technology has attracted private funding over the last few years, and several reactor concepts are under development. One area under research is the compatibility between the salt coolant and the structural materials and, for some designs, the chemical processes related to the associated fuel cycle, Monti said.

Safety first

The challenges are not only technical. Nuclear regulators will need to review existing safety regulations to see how these can be modified, if necessary, to fit molten salt reactors, since they differ significantly from reactors in use today, said Stewart Magruder, senior nuclear safety officer at the IAEA.

Participants, including researchers, designers and industry representatives, emphasized the need for an international platform for information exchange.

“While the United States is actively developing both technology and safety regulations for molten salt reactors, the meeting is an important platform to exchange knowledge and information with Member States not engaged in the existing forums,” said David Holcomb from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, one of the 35 participants at the meeting last week. The development of molten salt reactors began with an experiment conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1960s.

From bilateral to multilateral cooperation

To help speed up research, it is essential to move from bilateral to multilateral cooperation, said Chen Kun from the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. “It is the first time China has the opportunity to share knowledge with India, Indonesia and Turkey on this technology.”

Indonesia is considering building its first nuclear power plant with molten salt reactor design, said Bob Soelaiman Effendi from Indonesia Thorium Energy Community. “For a developing country like Indonesia, a molten salt reactor’s higher efficiency in electricity generation makes it more economical and affordable than fossil-fuel power plants.”

Molten salt reactors and other advanced nuclear reactors have received increased attention over the last few years as the world is looking for alternative technologies for energy production. Advanced reactors, which could increase the sustainability of nuclear power, are at various stages of development. Some advanced reactors, such as the sodium-cooled fast reactor BN-800 in Russia and the High Temperature Reactor Prototype Module in China are already connected to the grid or are in an advanced stage of construction. Others, such as molten salt reactors, are in the design phase.

Notable Media Coverage

The Economist: Asgard’s fire

World Economic Forum: Video summarizing the TMSR

Thorium - The future of energy. A video depicting the current energy situation in the world and a solution.

Reuters: Thorium and the dream of clean nuclear power

Business Insider: A forgotten war technology could safely power Earth for millions of years. Here’s why we aren’t using it.

[https://www.memagazinedigital.org/memagazine/february 2017?pg=40#pg40 Mechanical Engineering: Thunder on the Horizon]

Fortune: The U.S. is helping China build a novel, superior nuclear reactor

[https://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2015/01/16/thorium-future-nuclear-energy/#.WOu4q mGOwV Discover Magazine: Thorium Power is the safer future of nuclear energy]

Thorium Energy World: China Announces Thorium Energy Program

Thorium Energy World: Bill Gates Invests in Thorium Capable Reactor Venture

Thorium Energy World: Indonesia and ThorCon to Develop Thorium MSR

TED Talks on Thorium

TED talks is a source of inspiration and, as the slogan says, ‘ideas worth spreading’. Thorium and its potential as an energy source has been featured several times in various places around the world.

Can Thorium End Our Energy Crisis?

Why Making Energy From Dirt Might Save The World

Making Safe Nuclear Power from Thorium

Thorium Can Give Humanity Clean, Pollution Free Energy

(French) L'énergie du thorium, l'avenir vert du nucléaire?

Thorium To Light Up The World

References

[1] Abundance: the Future is Better than You Think by Peter Diamandis

Thorium Molten Salt Reactor is mentioned as a possible energy solution

[2] Superfuel: Thorium, the green energy source for the future

[3] Thorium: energy cheaper than coal

[4] Documents Related to Liquid-Halide (Fluoride and Chloride) Reactor Research and Development. Thorium Energy started in the 1950's in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a test reactor (not running on Th though future version would): http://energyfromthorium.com/pdf/

[5] American Scientist: Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors. An old idea in nuclear power gets reexamined.

[6] The Economist: Thorium, an element named after the Norse god of thunder, may soon contribute to the world’s electricity supply  

[7] The Thorium Energy Report compiled by the International Thorium Energy Organisation

[8] The International Thorium Energy Conferences. The International Thorium Energy Organisation has arranged five conferences in different parts of the world with contributions from an international audience in the form of presentations and scientific papers.

[8] Thorium Remix 2016

100% Renewables: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032117304495

MSR Optimization: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306454910003452

Salt Thermodynamics: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022113908002030

Breeder Dynamics: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0306454978901068

MSR Adventure: [https://www.virlab.virginia.edu/Energy class/Lecture notes/Next Generation Nuclear Power Supporting materials/The Molten Salt Reactor Adventure - MacPhearson - Nuclear Science and Engineering - 1985.pdf http://www.virlab.virginia.edu/Energy_class/Lecture_notes/Next_Generation_Nuclear_Power_Supporting_materials/The%20Molten%20Salt%20Reactor%20Adventure%20-%20MacPhearson%20-%20Nuclear%20Science%20and%20Engineering%20-%201985.pdf]

TMSR Moving On: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149197006000746

TMSR Breeding and Processing: http://hal.in2p3.fr/in2p3-00020302/document

Three Region Core: [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282369432 Three-region core design for 200-MWelectric molten-salt reactor with thorium-uranium fuel? sg=aQtWvmUXokyeYShcpe3vgTC7 fCx1JWCwxZH37qz-ktX-u2RxVyZj gRkiQKft-hN8Pxj2SS4HDgzaQKhAtxfw https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282369432_Three-region_core_design_for_200-MWelectric_molten-salt_reactor_with_thorium-uranium_fuel?_sg=aQtWvmUXokyeYShcpe3vgTC7_fCx1JWCwxZH37qz-ktX-u2RxVyZj_gRkiQKft-hN8Pxj2SS4HDgzaQKhAtxfw]

Large Scale Energy: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149197004000794

Zero Power: http://moltensalt.org/references/static/downloads/pdf/ORNL-TM-3963.pdf

Revisit the Thorium-Uranium fuel cycle: http://www.europhysicsnews.org/articles/epn/pdf/2007/02/epn07204.pdf

Gen 4: TMSR viability: https://www.gen-4.org/gif/upload/docs/application/pdf/2014-03/gif-tru2014.pdf

Earths heat is to 70% generated by radioactivity: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3205110/Ghost-particles-coming-centre-Earth-Geoneutrinos-suggest-70-cent-Earth-s-heat-generated-radioactivity.html

The use of thorium in power reactors has been considered since the birth of nuclear energy in the 1950s, in large part because thorium is considerably more abundant than uranium in the Earth’s crust. Roughly speaking, there is about three to four times more thorium than uranium. Unfortunately, thorium atoms cannot themselves be easily induced to split the basic requirement of a fission reactor. But when a quantity of thorium-232 (the common isotope of that element) is placed within a nuclear reactor, it readily absorbs neutrons and transforms into uranium-233, which, like the uranium-235 typically used for generating nuclear power, supports fission chain reactions. Thorium is thus said to be “fertile” rather than fissile. In this respect, it is similar to uranium-238, which makes up more than 95 percent of most nuclear fuels. A conventional reactor breeds various isotopes of plutonium from uranium-238, and some of that plutonium, in turn, undergoes fission in the reactor, adding to the power the uranium-235 provides.[328]

Intellectual property:-

  • Thorium-based nuclear reactor and method US 20100067644 A1:- A nuclear reactor and method for generating energy from fertile and fissile nuclear fuel material. The reactor may comprise a pressure vessel for housing a nuclear reactor core, the vessel having a lower vessel with an upwardly facing opening and a vessel closure head having a sealable access port[329].
  • Molten salt nuclear reactor US 20090279658 A1:- A molten salt breeder reactor that has fuel conduit surrounded by a fertile blanket. The fuel salt conduit has an elongated core section that allows for the generation of electrical power on a scale comparable to commercially available nuclear reactors. The geometry of the fuel conduit is such that sub-critical conditions exist near the input and output of the fuel salt conduit and the fertile blanket surrounds the input and output of the fuel salt conduit, thereby minimizing neutron losses[330].

Nuclear fission reactor issues

Historically the drawbacks of nuclear power have been: safety, waste, proliferation and economics. This makes the categories important measurement criteria for how well a system performs. However, what we today think about nuclear safety, waste, proliferation and economics are all based on the current Light Water Reactors and the fuel used.

TMSR minimizes issues

By using Thorium in a Thorium Molten Salt Reactor these problems are drastically reduced.

Safety, the TMSR is 'walk away safe' meaning that if all operators leave the reactor and external and internal power is cut the reactor shuts itself off safely.

Waste, the TMSR doesn't leave any tranuranic elements since it burns thorium completely. This results in 80% of the decomposed thorium (waste) having a radioactivity below that of natural uranium ore after 10 years. The remaining 20% of the decomposed thorium (waste) has a radioactivity below that of natural uranium ore after 300 years. Further the amounts are extremely small. A bowling ball of thorium can in a TMSR power a town with 1 million inhabitants. Further, there is no CO2 emission or air pollution released by TMSRs, these are the main enemies to our energy supply (not small amounts of waste).

Proliferation, the TMSR needs to be started with something else than thorium, for this it requires either fissile material or spallation neutrons. But once the TMSR is started (one deliver of proliferation material) the system can run for as long as the reactor core is exchanged (some want to exchange often others as rare as 20 years).

Economics, the TMSR is expected by many to produce electricity (and heat) at a price cheaper than both coal and gas does today.

Although it does have an increasing amount of supporters (old nuclear never favoured it), some of the associated issues of today's nuclear reactors still apply to thorium reactors, as they still use radioactive isotopes: health, safety and environmental issues. Although these issues might be less of a concern than current reactors, there is still much debate on this [331] and other potential complications and disadvantages.

The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) concluded that for the short to medium term, "...the thorium fuel cycle does not currently have a role to play," in that it is "technically immature, and would require a significant financial investment and risk without clear benefits," and concluded that the benefits have been "overstated".

A well written article on this topic is: Don't believe the spin on thorium being a greener nuclear option[332] with the claim, "A Cold War-era liquid-fueled reactor design could transform thorium — a radioactive waste from mining — into a practically limitless energy source."

Another deep dive into the subject was written by Dave Mosher titled A forgotten war technology could safely power Earth for millions of years. Here's why we aren't using it.

Discussion

It has been shown that life on planet earth depends on natural and abundant Thorium Energy, without it we wouldn't exist.

Further it has been shown that Thorium Energy from the TMSR represents a unique breakthrough energy system far outperforming LWRs and the current perception of nuclear power. It's ability to do load following (adjust energy output to what is needed) makes it a perfect partner to the second CO2 free but unfortunately inherently intermittent, location dependent and dilute energy source, renewables.

The potential of Thorium Energy from the TMSR suggests that once it is started the positive consequences would be so profound that in retrosspect we would call it a new era, perhaps a Thorium Energy World.

The Thorium Energy implementation is around the corner. Today there are about 10 official developers with several others working 'under the radar'. These seem to have the assets to successfully commercialize Thorium Energy. However, a Thorium X Prize will produce a tipping point for implementation and an additional focus.

The world was unfortunately given a nuclear power system with conciderable flaws at a time when humanity didn't value its superior qualities (such as CO2 free energy). Today we know what we need and how to get it.

Let's power the world with Thorium Energy - a proven, clean and abundant energy source that will power the world for thousands of years!

Harvesting Energy from human body

" Have you got 100 Watts to spare? Will thinking about this question help? " [333] [334]


~Human Kinetic Energy, Human Power

Interesting Infographic, and describing it, I can say: Our own bodies generate Energy and sometimes, it looks like a guitar string music.

`Many experts believe the simplest way to generate renewable Energy is through our own bodies. Devices now use much less power that before; harvesting just a microwatt electricity , enough to power small electronics `UK researchers have developed a knee brace that collects electrons while you walk and wearing this, four metals vanes in a device, vibrate like a guitar string and produce electricity`

Energy from exercise & workouts

By adopting power-producing exercise machines, gyms can promote themselves as environmentally friendly and also reduce their electric bills. At least three start-ups in the United States are now selling equipment to retrofit aerobic machines—stationary bicycles, elliptical trainers, and steppers—into electricity-generating gear. These companies have already converted several hundred machines at dozens of U.S. health clubs and university gyms[335].

Foot Pedals

Foot pedals have long been used to create rotational power for devices like sewing machines and drill presses, and this rotational power could be connected to a generator to produce electricity. Foot pedals placed under desks could help desk workers overcome health risks associated with sitting too long and leaving leg muscles to atrophy, by maintaining circulation and possibly strengthening relevant muscles.

Dance floors

Club Watt in Rotterdam uses a form of kinetic energy called the piezoelectric effect to generate electricity. When people walk, hop, skip or jump, energy is generated – but it usually goes straight back into the ground. Scientists from Studio Roosegaarde discovered a way to power electronic equipment – and so the energy harvesting dancefloor was born. The design has been replicated in several locations across the world including London[336].

Breathing

Scientists have developed a device which converts human breathing into electricity. Vibrations created by breathing power a plastic microbelt, engineered from piezoelectric material called polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Developers believe that they will soon be able to make the technology tiny enough to fit inside your nose[337].

Clothing movement

Energy can be generated by friction produced by your clothes rustling. Scientists have developed a “power shirt” which uses fibres coated in zinc oxide nanowires, which use the piezoelectric effect to convert movement into electricity. It is hoped that the shirt could be worn by soldiers out in the field to power small survival devices which currently require frequent charging[338].

Energy from shoes

Energy can be generated from the compression and release of shoe soles when a wearer takes a step. An example company working on this is Sole Power of Pittsburgh, PA, which now has a patented SmartBoots insole[339]. This can be combined with e.g. a solar cell attached to the top of the shoe[340].

Body heat

A thermoelectric generator (TEG) can be used to harvest electrical energy from human body heat for the purpose of powering wearable electronics. At the NSF Advanced Self-Powered Systems of Integrated Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST), TEGs are one of the enabling technologies being explored to advance the center’s mission of creating wearable, self-powered, health and environmental monitoring systems[341].

Tidal power

Like solar power, tidal power is clean and sustainable. It is also reliable, as you can expect one or two high tides every day - independent of the weather. There is great potential for such sources of power, but of course it is only available to those with a coastline. Well, that is classically speaking; in theory, floating platforms could be anchored to the ocean (or sea) floor anywhere to collect energy from rising tides, although the vertical displacement is lower than around the funnelling features of a coastline.

The estimates of global potential of tidal energy generation vary, but it is widely agreed that tidal stream energy capacity could exceed 120 GW globally. It has been estimated that tidal stream energy could theoretically supply more than 150 TW/h per annum, well in excess of all domestic electricity consumption in the UK. This represents a potential total global market size of up to 90 GW of generating capacity. [342]

The UK is well placed, geographically and technically, to benefit from tidal power. [343] A study of the potential tidal energy around the UK [344] says that the rate of dissipation of tidal energy in the Earth’s shelf seas is on average about 2.5 TW, and on average over 200 GW of tidal energy is being dissipated in the waters around the British Isles. Yet, perhaps surprisingly, recent assessments of tidal stream energy resources around the UK have estimated the exploitable resource, when averaged over a year, in the range 2 to 7 GW, which may be compared to an average electrical power consumption in the UK for 2005 of 46 GW [note: There was a 17% fall in the amount of energy used by the UK between 1998 and 2015 [345]; currently it is around 33 to 35 GW [346] [347]]. However, there is considerable uncertainty attached to the tidal resource estimates. [Perhaps the exploitation of a mere few percent of the total potential suggests the need for greater innovative thinking in this area!]

Tidal power harvests the energy associated with the rising and falling tides: the difference between the potential energy of the high and low tides.

One technique is to build a dam wall around an estuary or bay. As the tide rises water rushes into the bay/estuary and turns turbines to generate electricity. Similarly, at low tide, the reverse happens and the water leaving the bay/estuary turns the turbines to generate electricity.

This approach was proposed for the Severn estuary in the UK and it could have generated 10 percent of the UK's energy requirement; but, it was rejected on environmental grounds - the impact on birds [although a technical solution could have addressed this].

Recently a bay in Wales has been proposed as a demonstrator project for tidal power: Welsh tidal lagoon project could open way for £15bn revolution in UK energy[348].

Alternatively, turbines might be placed along the sea bed of a natural inlet where the rising and falling tidal flows are focused. [Think of underwater wind-like turbines.] This approach has been demonstrated in Scotland: World's first large-scale tidal energy farm launches in Scotland[349] [350].

Hydroelectric Power

Hydroelectric power uses water and gravity, i.e. the potential energy stored in the water at a given height. When that water is allowed to fall to a lower height some of the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. This is used to drive turbines that turn generators to produce electricity.

Hydroelectric power can be seen at a number of dams across the world:

  • Hoover Dam (US) [351]
  • The massive Three Gorges Dam (China) [352]
  • World's Largest Hydroelectric Dams [353] [354]

Hydropower is the largest single renewable electricity source today, providing 16% of world electricity at competitive prices. It dominates the electricity mix in several countries, developed, emerging or developing. [355] The 2012 IEA Technology Roadmap for Hydropower, developed in cooperation with the Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy, reports that emerging economies have the potential to double hydroelectric production by 2050, preventing up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 annually and fostering social and economic development.

Balancing demand

Using hydroelectric power to store energy is not a new idea, it has been used for decades. When the demand for electrical power is lower (and prices are lower) electricity is used to pump water up to an elevated dam [356]. When the demand (and price) rises the water is allowed to fall from the dam and power turbines, which turns electrical generators.

Storing the intermittent energy from renewable energy sources

Here's a clever idea that makes use of an old coal mine to store renewable electricity. Water in a reservoir is allowed to fall to the bottom of the mine to produce hydroelectric power. Renewable energy sources are used to pump the water back up to the reservoir. Basically it's a huge energy storage battery using hydroelectric power. [357]

Storage of renewable energy, without the use of renewable energy sources

Where there is water and gravity, then there will be infinite power: ocean, mountainous, valley,... and desert. Of course, water is the main source of electricity. For the ocean, mountainous and valley, water sources are not problem. Special for the desert, water sources are important, so this project can be stored a large water reservoir and used them to create electricity. When the water sources was used to create electricity, 99.95-99.99% amount of water will back up to the reservoir and we are have infinite power.

Follow experiment of Robert Boyle :”the large weight on the left forces water flows downward and around the narrow neck where the weight is less, and then it flows out through the orifice to the  top to replenish the water in the flask”.

Instead of using the water pressure to spin the tubing pelton, with this combination we can reduce the pressure applied to surface tuabin. Increasing the flow velocity, to increase the turbine's life . Steadily flow, the current is always at a safe level.[453] 

Micro-Hydro Power

Micro-hydro power generation, typically defined as hundreds of kilowatt class hydro power generation and without using dams to collect and store water, is an effective way to provide accessible, clean and widely distributed power[358]. Hydro power generators at 5kW and less are labeled pico-hydro. Micro and pico hydro power generation uses low-head running water sources, which are common everywhere there are streams, rivers, and drainage channels. Several small companies are addressing the market at the various scales of generation, yet this market should and could grow immensely worldwide. For smaller scale equipment a Victoria, BC. company provides hydropower systems in the sub 50kW class, and can provide units as low as 200 Watts[359]. Another company provides micro-hydro units from the 5kW to 250kW class[360]. A California startup is making progress introducing a new turbine design for higher efficiency and lifetime in 25kW to 1400kW class equipment[361].

(Water) Implosion (Vortices and Centripetal Movement) Technologies

Victor Schauberger

Victor Schauberger[362] [363]and his works are some of the most viral within the free energy world, where it is believed by some Schauberger went so far as to actually invent free energy/perpetual motion devices and that this was "covered up" by the US government. In 1934 Viktor was meeting with Hitler, and had discussions about fundamental principles of agriculture, forestry and water engineering. Schauberger is believed to have lent his ideas in order to aid the German Reich. Although whether this was under duress or willingly is still a matter of debate. At the end of the war Schauberger was apprehended by US intelligence agents, and kept in custody for 9 months. They confiscated all his documents and prototypes, and interrogated him to determine his activities during the war.

Viktor Schauberger was born in Holzschlag, Austria, to a long line of Austrian foresters that could be traced back to early Germanic tribes, with views on and concepts of nature entirely different than the ones known to us currently. Creek and river flow fascinated him during his youth. He went on to develop a basic theory that contains a twofold movement principle for such phenomena. 

In 1922 (for Adolf I, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe), Schauberger designed and had built several log flumes which reduced the timber transport costs to one tenth the previous cost and allowed transport of denser than water woods such as beech and fir. In 1924, Viktor Schauberger became a Public Council consultant for the log flumes for the Austrian state. He started construction of three large plants in Austria. In 1926, he undertook research at a timber flotation installation in Neuberg an der Mürz in Styria. In 1929 Schauberger submitted his first applications for patents in the fields of water engineering and turbine construction. He conducted research on how to artificially generate centripetal movement in various types of machines. He proposed a means of utilising hydroelectric power by a jet turbine. The log flumes used for timber flotation allegedly disregarded the Archimedes' principle, i.e., Schauberger was allegedly able to transport heavier-than-water objects by creating a centripetal movement (making the timber spin around its own axis, by special guiding-vanes which caused the water to spiral). Professor Philipp Forchheimer was sent to study the log flumes. Professor Forchheimer in 1930-1931 later published with Schauberger a series of articles in "Die Wasserwirtschaft", the Austrian Journal of Hydrology.

Viktor's first concepts were brought on by studying trout in its natural environment. He was quoted as saying:

How was it possible for this fish to stand so motionlessly, only steering itself with slight movements of its tail-fins, in this wildly torrential flow, which made my staff shake so much that I could hardly hang onto it? What forces enabled the trout to overcome its own body-weight so effortlessly and quickly, and, at the same time, overcome the specific weight of the heavy water flowing against it?

These questions inspired further investigation to study the force that allowed such effortless natural motion. Schaubergers conclusion led to his theory of natural vortices.

Schauberger's second major theory was in the structure of water. He believed that water is at its densest when cold (at +4C water anomaly point) (and at the time of a full moon), and that there are many layers in the structure of flowing water. He claimed that nature creates vortices to create equilibriums. (He further claimed that our current form of energy production/consumption scatters matter into disequilibrium. His studies were not approved by science at the time, even when his ideas were put into practice.)

Nature, Viktor Schauberger had believed, employed the vortex as its most efficient conduit for the transmission of energy. When this three-dimensional spiraling energy pattern was channeled inward, not outward, in a process Viktor called "implosion," it became endowed with "higher order" properties—characteristics which Viktor himself described as "atomic" (although his understanding of the word was quite different from that of a nuclear physicist's).These properties were capable of generating phenomenal levels of force. Transposed into machinery, Viktor had even coined a term for it: "bio-technology."

The above referenced biography as it relates Viktor Schaumber, the inventor, by Nick Cook in the book The Hunt for Zero Point, continues:

"In 1934, a year after Hitler came to power, Schauberger was summoned to the German capital to explain to his Führer and fellow countryman how processes of natural motion and temperature and the vital relationship between soil, water and vegetation combined to create a sustainable and viable society; a society, in effect, that was at ease with itself. At the meeting was Max Planck, the great German physicist and pioneer of quantum theory, who when asked by Hitler at the end of Schauberger's talk what he thought of his theories replied testily, "Science has nothing to do with Nature" and withdrew from the discussion. Hitler nonetheless asked his technical and economic advisers what could be done to incorporate Schauberger's ideas into the country's four-year economic plan, but nothing ever came of it. For his part, Schauberger told Hitler that the short-termism of Germany's economic strategy would undermine and ultimately destroy the country's biological foundations. As a result, he said, the thousand-year Reich would be lucky if it lasted ten. By using an "impeller"—a propeller that induced an inward-, instead of outward-flowing motion—to draw water through a tube, a flow pattern Schauberger referred to as "centripetal [the opposite of centrifugal] force," he found that the output he was getting was nine times greater than could be achieved with a conventional pressure turbine. His early egg-shaped implosion machines were also generating extremely high vacuum effects. By substituting air for water, Schauberger began to envisage a device that with some refinement could be put to use as a radical form of aeroengine; one that sucked rather than pushed its way through the atmosphere. In 1939, he conceived of a device that could be put to use either as an energy generator or as a power plant for aircraft or submarines. In the application he lodged to the Reich Patent Office the following year, Schauberger described the essential characteristics of this machine as a "multistage centrifuge with concentrically juxtaposed pressure chambers." Shortly afterward, he wrote to his cousin that he had invented an aircraft that didn't make any noise. With these devices, Schauberger realized he had created an entirely new methodology for propelling vehicles through air and water. As Joerg Schauberger and I settled into the archive, which was crammed full with the old man's files and papers, it was clear that Viktor Schauberger had documented every turn of his career in meticulous detail. Through his letters, duplicates of which he always placed on file, it was possible to paint an intricate profile of the man and his inventions. The challenge, even for his family, lay in decoding the shorthand Schauberger had used to decribe his work. During the war, he had concentrated on the development of several types of machine—the Repulsator and Repulsine for water purification and distillation, the Implosion Motor for electricity generation, the Trout Turbine for submarine propulsion and a "flying saucer" that used air instead of water as its driving medium. Because they all worked on the same principles, Schauberger tended to interchange the names of these devices and their applications when it suited him. So, when Viktor wrote in 1940 that he had commissioned a company in Berlin called Kaempfer to build a "Repulsator," it wasn't immediately apparent what this machine was for. It was only when he ran into contractual difficulties with Kaempfer, which was having enormous problems manufacturing the machine to Viktor's demanding specifications, that its function became clear. By February 1941, Viktor had switched contractors to the Kertl company in Vienna, and here, in correspondence, he described the prototype (which he was building at his own expense) as having a twofold purpose: to investigate "free energy production" and to validate his theories of "levitational flight." The machine relied on a turbine plate of waviform construction that fitted onto a similarly molded base plate. The gap between the plates was whorl-shaped, mimicking the corkscrew action of a kudu's antler. Having drawn air in via the intake, the rapidly rotating turbine propelled it to the rim of the rotating mass under centrifugal force. The vortex movement of air created by the waviform gap between the plates led to its rapid cooling and "densation," producing a massive reduction in volume and generating a vacuum of enormous pressure, which sucked more air into the turbine.  The machine required a small starter motor to commence the process (as depicted in the Legend), but having whipped the turbine up to around 15,000-20,000 rpm the motor was turned off and the operation became self-sustaining. By connecting the machine to a gear shaft, electricity could be generated from it; or left to its own devices, it could be made to take off. This capacity to fly Schauberger partly attributed to the creation of the vacuum in the rarefied region immediately above the plates. But the primary levitating force, he claimed, was due to some other process altogether—a reaction between the air molecules in their newly excited state and the body of the machine itself. Here, we had touched on the heart of the matter: Had Viktor Schauberger created an "antigravity" device?

Osmotic Power ("Blue energy")

When saltwater and freshwater mix, if they are separated by a semi-permeable membrane that water but not salt ions can pass through, water will pass to the saltier side by osmosis. This can build up a pressure differential that can drive turbines and generate electricity. This became commercially viable in the 1970s with the development of the necessary semi-permeable membranes. In 2009, a Norwegian site was using this principle to generate 4 kW of power. However, this plant was closed in 2013 on the conclusion that the technology was not cost effective given construction, operations, and maintenance costs.

Explorations are currently underway with membranes that allow some salt ions (e.g. sodium or chloride), but not water, to pass through, and alternating these layers and their contents can produce and electrical voltage directly.

A third technique, known as capacitive mixing, alternately feeds saltwater and freshwater into a chamber with two electrodes, which store charge and raise voltage. This technique seems more effective if the water is warmed, e.g. by waste heat from industrial processes that require water cooling.

The same principle could apply to dissolved substances other than salt, such as sugars or dissolved carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel plants, and maybe even with gas (e.g. power plant flue gas) instead of water. World capacity for this technology being applied to flue gases of fossil fuel power plants is estimated at 850 TWh/year.[364]

Improved membranes / filters

Improvements in membranes can be expected. Just recently it was announced that graphene related filters can be used to extract clean drinking water from sea water. [365] [366] This technology might, in the future, make osmotic power more viable than it was.

Wave and wind power

Depending on the daily weather, it is possible to harvest energy from the wind (on land and out at sea) and from waves. The downside is their intermittent nature.

Wind

It has been estimated that roughly 10 million MW [10,000 GW] of energy are continuously available in the earth's wind. [367]

Wind turbine technology is already well established, on land and at sea.

An innovative idea in wind technology is to harvest the higher wind speeds found at higher altitudes[368]. For example, a tethered floating helium balloon and use its wind turbines to generate electricity; or a large kite[369] could fly at altitude and pull cables that rotate generators.

An innovative approach involves using electro-active polymer to convert wind energy into electricity. [370]

Denmark Just Ran Their Entire Country on 100% Wind Energy [371] Thanks in part to the installation of a new offshore wind turbine installation, Denmark was recently able to power the entire country for a day with wind energy alone. As many countries continue to incorporate renewable energy, successes like this show just how much is possible.

Wave

Wave power prototypes exist, but this still seems to be in its development phase. However, it could have long term potential: there's a lot of ocean out there!

Note that wave power is different to tidal power, which is described above. Waves of the World Ocean are capable of supplying 62 exa Joules energy (62 x 1018 J) per year. That is, the annual global power resource of wave energy can exceed 2 TW! [372] Taking into account modern technologies, only, about 500 GW, from them, can be utilized. [373] This figure, the same is impressive. However, one should keep in mind that "modern technologies" still cling to the coast, where the power of the waves is minimal!

It is interesting, too, to draw attention to the fact that according to the same experts, the potential energy of sea waves, for example, along the coast of the United States, exceeds the potential of tidal flow, as well as ocean and river currents, combined. [374]

In many areas of the globe, waves can be a viable source of energy, effective at least 65% of the time. An important advantage of wave power plants is also that they are most efficient in winter, when the power of solar and wind generators falls. This circumstance makes it possible to optimally combine these sources of pure energy with each other. The best places to use wave energy in the north and south of the planet are in temperate latitudes, where the western winds predominate, especially strong in winter, for the corresponding hemisphere, period. The immediate global task of inventors of devices, for the utilization of the energy of sea waves, to master the deep water areas of these regions of the planet. This can be done with the help of autonomous devices capable, without destruction, to interact with a wave of any power and not requiring orientation and stabilization in space relative to the general course of wave propagation. Such conditions are satisfied, for example, by a wave power plant corresponding to US Pat. No. 8,564,150 B2 of October 22, 2013. [375]

Zeolite energy storage

Solar energy can be absorbed using zeolites and the same energy can be stored indefinitely, on adding water to zeolite pellets this stored energy can be released[376].Utilizing 13X synthetic zeolite to store solar energy has been successful.[377]

Storing solar energy principle of zeolites

Zeolite is an aluminosilicate mineral of alkali or alkaline earth metal which contains crystal water. Its general chemical formula is

A mX pO 2p · nH 2O

Where A represents Ca, Na, K, Ba, and Sr; X represents Al and Si. Zeolites consist of three dimensional networks of AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedra linked by sharing of all oxygen atoms. The aluminosilicate frameworks of zeolites are remarkably open and contain channels, and interconnected voids partially filled with cation and water molecules. The intracrystalline voids make up from 20 to 50% of the total crystal volume of most zeolites. When zeolites are heated, water molecules in the intracrystalline voids are partially or wholly desorbed. After being desorb, the water molecules can be adsorbed in the air or water again, and crystal lattice construction of zeolite are not damaged.

Zeolites have extremely nonlinear adsorption isotherms to water. The feature of adsorbing and desorbing water makes zeolites a new type of material for storing solar energy and to be showed off. When zeolites are heated, water molecules in it escape, and heat energy is stored in it in the meantime; when water molecules are adsorbed again, the heat energy in zeolites is released. These two process can be shown by chemical equation as follow:

A mX pO 2p · nh 2O = A mX pO 2p+nH 2O ­ (endothermic)

A mX pO 2p · nh 2O = A mX pO 2p+nH 2O (endothermic)

When zeolites absorb heat and desorb crystal water molecules, the temperature of it does not vary, therefore, this process belongs to the one of latent heat storage. So long as zeolites, of which water molecules are desorbed, keep apart water, the heat energy of it can be stored as long as you like. The energy storing density of zeolites is higher than the aforementioned three types of ways of storing energy. When the heat energy in zeolites is desorbed, we can control the speed of desorption by controlling the speed of water absorption. Therefore, zeolites have better merits than the aforementioned ways of storing energy[377].

Intellectual property:

  • Adsorption solar heating and storage system US 4269170 A:- A typical solar energy flat plate collector whose volume is filled with a zeolite such as Linde Co.'s type 13X or LMS type 4A. The zeolite bed provides a means of chemical storage of solar energy for sunless periods through its potential "heat of adsorption". During sunless hours, stored energy in the form of latent heat of adsorption is released by allowing amounts of the adsorbate, water in this case, to be adsorbed by the zeolite bed[378].
  • Superheated Steam Generator, Electric Power Generating Ship, and Connection Robot US 20110139146 A1:- A superheated steam generator for generating superheated steam is disclosed that can be converted into electric energy by adsorbing water into zeolite and desorbing water from zeolite by use of solar heat source energy and seawater source energy[379].
  • Energy absorption and release devices and systems US 20110146939 A1:- A thermal storage device comprising a container containing a body of zeolite comprising a zeolite sieve and thermally conducting fins extending substantially into the body of zeolite in which said thermally conducting fins are thermally connected to a heat source[380].

Piezoelectric energy

Piezoelectric materials can be used to convert oscillatory mechanical energy into electrical energy. This technology, together with innovative mechanical coupling designs, can form the basis for harvesting energy from mechanical motion. Piezoelectric energy can be harvested to convert walking motion from the human body into electrical power. Recently four proof-of-concept Heel Strike Units were developed where each unit is essentially a small electric generator that utilizes piezoelectric elements to convert mechanical motion into electrical power in the form factor of the heel of a boot. The results of the testing and evaluation and the performance of this small electric generator are presented. The generator’s conversion of mechanical motion into electrical power, the processes it goes through to produce useable power and commercial applications of the Heel Strike electric generator are discussed[381].

Piezoelectric multilayer stacks, a vibration-toelectric energy conversion mechanism, have been used for energy harvesting from ambient vibration source in recent years. The main problem of using the piezoelectric stacks for energy harvesting is that the low amount of energy is harvested under direct loading conditions due to the high stiffness of the piezoelectric stacks. The objective of this project is to investigate and develop a high-efficiency light-weight portable piezoelectric energy harvester, capable of harnessing several watts of electricity from the backpack motion or dynamic stepping force, 100-1000 times more than the state-of-thearts piezoelectric harvesters, to meet the critical power demand for soldier’s electronic devices. Such a piezoelectric energy harvester can be a stand-alone device that sits at the bottom of a regular backpack under the load or acts as a convenient electrical source when the soldier steps on or presses it.[382]

Intellectual property:

  • Piezoelectric energy harvesting device or actuator US 20140285067 A1:-This invention concerns a piezoelectric energy harvesting device or actuator comprising a piezoelectric material on a substrate . The piezoelectric material is divided into a plurality of discrete regions to provide a plurality of piezoelectric elementson the substrate which are electrically insulated from each other[383].
  • Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting device US 20050134149 A1:-A piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting device which is made up of a first mass, a second, a first spring coupled to the first mass, and a second spring coupled to the second mass. A piezoelectric element is bonded between the first mass and the second spring, so that a stress applied to the second spring is applied to the piezoelectric element[384].
  • Piezoelectric vibrational energy harvester WO 2014116794 A1:- A vibrational energy harvester having a base and a piezoelectric transducer formed from a layer of piezoelectric material and extending between a first end at the base and a second end. At least a portion of the piezoelectric transducer is arranged in a back and forth pattern between the first and second ends[385].

Harvesting Energy From Lightning

The average lightning strike contains about 1 million joules, enough energy to fry the founding father in his boots. “The typical house in the U.S. has 100 amp service, or about 28 horsepower,” says Kirtley. Unfortunately, relying on lightning bolts to power our hair dryers, TVs, and refrigerators would be far from cost effective.  The problem is that the energy in lightning is contained in a very short period of time, only a few microseconds. Further, to obtain that 1 million joules, one would have to handle a voltage of several million volts.Absorbing lightning and converting it to useful energy would be an extraordinary challenge,It would require complex capture and storage facilities and distribution systems that in the end would unlikely yield enough energy to justify their expense[386].

And because you never know if an upcoming lightning strike is going to carry a positive or negative charge, capacitors and rectifiers would also be necessary to equalize the currents of incoming strikes.

Some proposals using the lightning rod as a source of energy where lightning rod serves as a path of least resistance for the lightning to the ground are known. This energy is tapped and given to isolator circuits. Again this HVAC is stepped down into smaller voltages using hundreds of step down transformers. This again is manipulated to the sufficient extent and fed to thousands of turbines. Now a turbine generates upto ten to fifteen times the supply voltage. Thus thousands of turbines can generate a power which is almost equal to the initial power of the lightning. Thus the power of a lightning can be effectively harnessed and utilized for powering up even the entire city. However for this proposal to work there is no efficient way to store large amount of energy in fraction of seconds[387].

Another major challenge when attempting to harvest energy from lightning is the impossibility of predicting when and where thunderstorms will occur. However, getting struck by lightning is not as hard as one might think, if you are looking to get struck by lightning, it can be made to happen with relative ease, just ask Benjamin Franklin.

Lightning strikes certain georgraphic areas on earth with more frequency than others, so geography is important to how practical such a technology could potentially be; similarly to putting a wind turbines where it's most windy, lightning harvesting technology would need to be located where the most lightning strikes occur. The Horn of Africa, for example, is an area on earth where a high frequency of lightning strikes occur. This region is interesting for such a technology because of how positively a new energy source could be for the continent. Additionally, this area on the continent of Africa is not limited by size and space constraints like a metropolitan area.

The technology itself could span miles in this area where land is plentiful like in the Horn of Africa. Macro scale material sciences wil have to be explored in an effort solve this physics question, this technology will likely not be discovered via the nanoscale scale material sciences.

Intellectual property:-

  • Power generating device using lightning WO 2013178973 A1:- A device to harvest energy from lightning. The electrical energy of the lightning is used to heat a fluid, which is then used to drive a turbine to produce electricity. The electricity provided by the turbine is in a form suitable to either by used or stored. The lightning strikes an antenna and is conducted through an insulated chamber where it heats the fluid[388].
  • Power generation method and device by thunder and lightning CN 101296536 A:- A specific embodiment provides a lightning energy storage system that includes a lightning rod, a wire, a lightning energy harvester, and a ground rod. The lightning rod is configured to attract lightning and transfer electrical energy. The lightning energy harvester incorporates at least one magnetic capacitor and a switch. The ground rod is connected to the wire. A control signal controls the switch to direct the electrical energy to ground through the ground rod or to direct the electrical energy to charge the magnetic capacitor, in response to a charging state of the magnetic capacitor[389].
  • Lightning energy storage system US 20140042987 A1:-A specific embodiment provides a lightning energy storage system that includes a lightning rod, a wire, a lightning energy harvester, and a ground rod. The lightning rod is configured to attract lightning and transfer electrical energy. The lightning energy harvester incorporates at least one magnetic capacitor and a switch. The ground rod is connected to the wire. A control signal controls the switch to direct the electrical energy to ground through the ground rod or to direct the electrical energy to charge the magnetic capacitor, in response to a charging state of the magnetic capacitor[390].

Artificial ball lightning

"The naturally occurring phenomenon known as ball lightning remains one of the greatest mysteries in the field of electromagnetism. Despite enormous contemporary advancements into the micro-universe (i.e. the fundamentals of the structure of atoms, nuclei, elementary particles, structure of the universe, etc.), ball lightning remains largely undiscovered, although there has been significant interest in this phenomenon by numerous researchers and scientists.

The nature and characteristics of ball lightning have remained largely unexplained for several reasons. First, there has not been found an effective way to reliably reproduce at least some of the unique effects of the phenomenon in a controlled and artificial environment. Second, its appearances seem to be random (other than the fact that it appears primarily during or after a thunderstorm), infrequent, and very brief, thus not providing a suitable setting in which to study this phenomenon even as it naturally occurs. In addition, most individuals that have had occasion to observe ball lightning have not had sufficient training in the sciences. As a result, the origin, properties, and nature of ball lightning still remain baffling to experts.

Although largely misunderstood, and although several have experimented with trying to artificially recreate ball lightning in the laboratory, due to the documented instances where ball lightning has been observed and the events that have taken place during these observations, many have come to believe that this relatively small object contains a colossal amount of potential energy. This belief stems mostly from some of the rather impressive and strange events that have resulted from the presence of what was believed to be the elusive phenomenon of ball lightning. Although there is widespread belief that ball lightning comprises significant potential energy, trying to reproduce ball lightning in the lab in order to research and possibly exploit this potential source of energy has proved all but impossible.

In the past, several attempts have been made to reproduce ball lightning. In one instance, ball lightning is believed to have been created by taking a material, such as a gas, at an initial pressure below atmospheric. The gas is treated with RF energy at a frequency greater than 1 MHz to transition the gas to a glow discharge state, and then at increased pressure to a new state, wherein the average internal temperature is the same or an order of magnitude higher than in the glow discharge state, but the rate or radiating heat is at least an order of magnitude lower than in the glow discharge state. Energy only in the form of heat is extracted from the “new” object through contact with a heat conducting member."[391]

(Chukanov, 2001) US 6936971 B2[391] Methods and systems for generating high energy photons or quantum energy The invention generates high-energy particles, or quantum energy, from a quantum macro object. The method used comprises: (a) isolating a gaseous substance within a bounded area; (b) energizing the gaseous substance, causing the gaseous substance to transition into a glow discharge plasma state; (c) increasing the gas pressure within the bounded area to transition the glow discharge plasma to a quantum macro object comprising a positively charged nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud; (d) inducing an active impact upon the quantum macro object such that the potential energy existing within the quantum macro object is converted and released in the form of quantum energy in a continuous and inexhaustible manner. The bounded area is typically created by a dielectric of various sorts, such as within a dielectric container or properly charged air...  The quantum energy is also believed to be a free gift of nature and capable of being utilized in numerous practical applications.

Energy from Algae

This represents an indirect form of solar energy, and may be termed a bio-fuel.

Algae has a higher calorific value (heat content) than corn or sugar, making it more efficient as a fuel source. This idea has been around since 1942, and since then, scientists have been working hard on various ways to harness this energy[392].

Algae as a fuel source has applications from biodiesel to aviation fuel. Certain algae species can be dried up and the fatty acids are then extracted. These fatty acids are subjected to esterification and biodiesel is thus obtained[393].

The ability of unicellular green algae to produce H2 gas upon illumination has been mostly a biological curiosity. Historically, hydrogen evolution activity in green algae was induced upon a prior anaerobic incubation of the cells in the dark ([/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-15 Greenbaum, 1982]; [/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-34 Roessler and Lien, 1984]; [/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-20 Happe and Naber, 1993]; [/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-36 Schulz, 1996]). A hydrogenase enzyme was expressed under such incubation and catalyzed, with high specific activity, a light-mediated H2 evolution. The monomeric form of the enzyme, reported to belong to the class of Fe hydrogenases ([/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-43 Voordouw et al., 1989]; [/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-1 Adams, 1990]; [/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-28 Meyer and Gagnon, 1991]; [/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-19 Happe et al., 1994]), is encoded in the nucleus of the unicellular green algae. However, the mature protein is localized and functions in the chloroplast stroma ([/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-19 Happe et al., 1994]). Light absorption by the photosynthetic apparatus is essential for the generation of hydrogen gas because light energy facilitates the oxidation of water molecules, the release of electrons and protons, and the endergonic transport of these electrons to ferredoxin. The photosynthetic ferredoxin (PetF) serves as the physiological electron donor to the Fe-hydrogenase and, thus, links the Fe hydrogenase to the electron transport chain in the chloroplast of the green algae ([/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-7 Florin et al., 2001])[394].

Under these conditions, the activity of the hydrogenase is only transient (it lasts from several seconds to a few minutes) because, in addition to electrons and protons, the light-dependent oxidation of water entails the release of molecular O2. Oxygen is a powerful inhibitor of the Fe hydrogenase ([/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-12 Ghirardi et al., 2000]). Current technological developments in this field have not yet succeeded in overcoming this mutually exclusive nature of the O2 and H2 photoproduction reactions. Thus, the physiological significance and role of the Fe hydrogenase in green algae, which normally grow under aerobic photosynthetic conditions, has long been a mystery. Given the O2 sensitivity of the Fe hydrogenase and the prevailing oxidative environmental conditions on earth, questions have been asked as to whether the hydrogenase is anything more than a relic of the evolutionary past of the chloroplast in green algae, and whether this enzyme and the process of photosynthesis can ever be utilized to generate H2 gas for commercial purposes ([/www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/740.full#ref-45 Zhang et al., 2001]). Nevertheless, the ability of green algae to photosynthetically generate H2 gas has captivated the fascination and interest of the scientific community because of the fundamental and practical importance of the process[394].

Intellectual property:

  • Energy production from algae in photo bioreactors enriched with carbon dioxide US 20100233787 A1:-A cyclic system composed of several integrated cyclic processes and a method for production of cement and or quicklime, ammonia, desalinated water and an excess of algae cells. The system comprises of: at least cement/quicklime production plant, at least ammonia production plant, at least one water desalination unit, at least one photo bioreactor. The energy source of the system is sunlight energy. The CO2 produced by the system and other waste products are sequestrated and recycled for additional cycles of system operation[395].
  • Process of producing oil from algae using biological rupturing US 8636815 B2:- A process for production of biofuels from algae can include cultivating an oil-producing algae, extracting the algal oil, and converting the algal oil to form biodiesel. Extracting the algal oil from the oil-producing algae can include biologically rupturing cell wall and oil vesicles of the oil-producing algae using at least one enzyme such as a cellulose or glycoproteinase, a structured enzyme system such as a cellulosome, a virus, or combination of these materials[396].

Harvesting LASER Irradiation energy with graphenGRAPHENE-CU compound structure

Graphene-metal compound structure has been reported as a novel and outstanding component used in electrical and optical devices. We report on a first-principles study of graphene-cu compound structure, showing its capacity of converting laser energy into electrical power and storing the harvested energy for a long time. A real-time and real-space time-dependent density functional method (TDDFT) is applied for the simulation of electrons dynamics and energy absorption[397].

The laser-induced charge transfer from copper layer to graphene layer is observed and represented by plane-averaged electron difference and dipoles. The effects of laser frequency on the excitation energy and charge transfer are studied as well. The enhancement of C-C σ-bond and decreasing of electron density corresponding to π-bond within graphene layer are responsible for the ability of storing the harvested energy for a long time[397].

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford - Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

The unprecedented brightness of Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-rays enables completely new areas of science, opening frontiers in imaging single nanoscale particles and in understanding chemistry on the natural timescales of reactions. These scientific advancements could lead to new and more effective drugs to fight disease, components for next-generation computers, new aircraft materials that are more damage-resistant, and highly customized chemical reactions that produces clean and renewable sources of energy.[398]

Tornado Power

Scientist Louis Michaud has been working on a crazy way to generate power by creating a controlled tornado that can be placed near existing nuclear energy plants and would convert waste energy into electricity. The tornado uses convection to mix hot and cold air and could generate anywhere between 50 to 500 megawatts of electrical power[399].

If used in conjunction with an energy plant, it has the potential to generate enough electricity to power a whole city. In the unlikely event of the tornado escaping, an operator could either switch the waste heat off, cutting off the tornado’s heat source, or in the worst case douse the nuclear plant with cold water[400].

Ability to be scaled

Most energy of a tornado is energy of motion: kinetic energy. From physics you may remember that the kinetic energy (KE) is

KE = 1/2 m v2

where

m = mass (of air in tornado)

v = velocity (wind velocity in tornado).

Let's assume that wind velocity is typical of an F3 tornado, around 300 km/hr. So

v = 300 km hr-1 = 80 m s-1

To get the mass, recall that m = r V, where r = density and V = volume. The appropriate density is that of air: r = 1 kg m-3.

To estimate the volume, make a simplifying assumption: approximate the tornado shape by a vertical cylinder with height h and radius r. The volume of the cylinder is

V = p r2 h

Assume the cylinder is 1 km in height and 1 km in radius.

Substituting volume and density into the equation for mass, then substituting for mass in the expression for kinetic energy,

KE = 1/2 p r2 h v2

= 1/2 p (103 m)2 (103 m) (80 m s-1)2

= 3 x 1012 J = 3 x 1019 ergs

This energy is quite small in comparison with the energy of other phenomena we have studied (e.g. earthquakes and volcanic eruptions). Nevertheless, tornadoes are destructive because this energy is concentrated into a very small region, compared with the large regions that earthquakes and volcanoes affect. So there is huge scope for capturing this energy[401].

Biomass Gasification

At grid scale, biomass energy plants are a well established and mature technology. Granted there is a global push for reconsidering the approach with integral CO2 capture in bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) plants[402]. On a small village or farm scale, however, there are few options for efficient biomass energy production equipment. One exception is All Power Labs biomass gasification and generator set on a pallet[403]. These units are designed for ~20kW output, and enable consistent production of biochar as well as the electrical and heat energy produced. Their equipment is about enabling people without grid access the ability to turn waste biomass (without forest or food conflicts) into electricity, with the resulting biochar as a useful soil amendment. Since a portion of the carbon contained in the biomass is not consumed in the gasifier pyrolysis process and ends up in biochar that can go back into the ground for long term sequestration, the overall energy generation process can be carbon negative. They include a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) module to offer the waste engine heat as a useful output to heat water or dry crops, for example.

Positron-Electron Annihilation

(Gregory Matthews 2009) WO 2011060523 A1[404] Positron - electron annihilation powered engine The invention provides an energy generator fueled by the physical process of positron - electron annihilation to provide heat input to a closed thermal loop. A positron beam and an electron beam are obtained from any radioisotope sources that produce positrons or electrons as part of their nuclear decay process. The two beams are collimated and accelerated using a pair of conical solenoid coils, per Lorentz force, to collide the electron and positron beams in order to produce energy in the form of photons through positron - electron annihilation in a collision chamber. The heat produced by the annihilation process is then transferred into mechanical energy per Boyle's Law to drive a turbine or rotary engine with heated compressed gas in a closed thermal loop via thermosyphoning.

Antimatter energy storage systems

An antimatter storage system (of which a positron is an example) could represent a very high energy storage density - probably the highest energy storage density possible! [405]

The energy density of matter: E = mc​2
E​ is the energy (Joules), ​ m ​ is the mass (kg), and ​ c ​ is the speed of light (~ 3 x 10​8 ms-1​ ). So if just one kilogram of mass was ​completely ​turned into energy then that would be an unimaginable amount of energy, equal to 9 x 10​16​ Joules - that’s 90 million Giga-Joules, or 25,000 GWh! Enough to power a city for a few years! In a typical nuclear reaction only a fraction of the mass is converted into energy, but when antimatter reacts with matter all the mass is converted into energy! Just one micro-gram would provide 25 kWh of energy!

Antimatter is real, see: What is antimatter? [406]

You may have heard of antimatter engines in Star Trek. We are not anywhere near that level yet but some progress exists in terms of collecting antimatter, and ideas for using antimatter. [407]

However, it would require some clever (fail-safe) systems to ensure it never, uncontrollably, came into contact with normal matter; as the resulting explosion could be far more energetic than an hydrogen bomb (in terms of relative energy liberated per unit mass). It's probably something that you wouldn't put in the hands of the average user - the last thing we want is more exploding smartphones.

CERN have explained how they work with antimatter [408] and go about storing antimatter[409].

The following challenges remain to realising this huge energy storage potential:

  • Creating and capturing larger quantities of antimatter
  • Designing an extremely robust and safe storage mechanism
  • Developing a safe mechanism for turning the antimatter into usable energy (e.g. electricity)

Converting heat into sound and into electricity

When heat is applied – with matches, a blowtorch or a heating element – the heat builds to a threshold. Then the hot, moving air produces sound at a single frequency, similar to air blown into a flute[410] Then the sound waves squeeze the piezoelectric device, producing an electrical voltage. Symko says it\’s similar to what happens if you hit a nerve in your elbow, producing a painful electrical nerve impulse.Then they convert the sound into electricity using existing technology: ”piezoelectric” devices that are squeezed in response to pressure, including sound waves, and change that pressure into electrical current[411].

Energy from living plants

  • Via photosynthesis a plant produces organic matter. Part of this organic matter is used for plant-growth, but a large part can’t be used by the plant and is excreted into the soil via the roots[412]. Around the roots naturally occurring micro-organisms break down the organic compounds to gain energy from. In this process, electrons are released as a waste product. By providing an electrode for the micro-organisms to donate their electrons to, the electrons can be harvested as electricity. Research has shown that plant-growth isn’t compromised by harvesting electricity, so plants keep on growing while electricity is concurrently produced[413].
  • The technology involves separating out structures in the plant cell called thylakoids, which are responsible for capturing and storing energy from sunlight. Researchers manipulate the proteins contained in the thylakoids, interrupting the pathway along which electrons flow. These modified thylakoids are then immobilized on a specially designed backing of carbon nanotubes, cylindrical structures that are nearly 50,000 times finer than a human hair. The nanotubes act as an electrical conductor, capturing the electrons from the plant material and sending them along a wire[414].

Intellectual property:-

  • Solar Leaves and Solar Tree Forest - A Solution for Energy Crisis US 20100186797 A1:- Solar leaves bearing solar films on the top surface and a reflective bottom surface can be attached to a solar tree or to a solar vine through a flexible petiole to convert sunlight into electricity. The electricity produced and be stored in a storage battery or can be sent to the national grid via an inverter. A group of solar trees can be put together in one area creating a solar forest to produce electricity from sunlight collectively[415].
  • Apparatus and method for metabolic energy harvesting WO 2013105845 A2:- There is disclosed an apparatus and method for use in energy harvesting, and more particularly metabolic energy harvesting. The apparatus of the present invention allows energy harvesting from a living plant without the need for coupling to the ground by using an energy capsule being removably attached to the plant[416].
  • Nanoleaf WO 2010131936 A2:- Harvesting energy from the environment responsibly is important, natural trees and plants do this efficiently already for millions of years. Our invention is the mimicking of this ingenious concept also referred to as biomimicry or biomimetics. In particular this invention relates to the shape and form of leaves and needles and their incorporated nanomaterials that allows the Nanoleaf to harvest, capture environmental energies like solar radiation, wind and sound and turn this into electricity, the Nanoleaves made from a flexible substrate, is exploited on both sides, using a process called thin-film deposition which will incorporated thermo and photovoltaic material for the purpose of converting solar radiation (light and heat) in addition we introduce piezoelectric connective elements that connect/affix the leaf to the plant or tree, this not only allows quick and secure assembly but it also serves for turning wind energy into electricity[417].

Capturing energy from rainfall

The energy generating potential of a single US household using only the amount of precipitation falling on their home and compares it to the annual household electric usage of about 6000-10000 kWh per year[418][419]. There are various methods that can be used to capture the energy from rainfall which mentioned as the following.

  • Trapping rain, storing it, and running it past a turbine is one mechanism of converting the energy of rainfall into electricity[420]
  • Another option that can be used in tandem is to capture the kinetic energy of the rain directly. This can be done using piezoelectricity, where crystals convert mechanical motion into electricity[420].
  • New Solar Panels Can Generate Energy From Rain Drops[421].

See also: Hydroelectric Power.

Energy Current Best Practices in the World

~American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, ACEEE, made in 2016 an important step on responsibility for Climate Change, lighting on the Global Energy Efficiency Ranking

~In the countries from the important ranking, the main focus on Energy Best Practices is on:

1)     Energy smart, green, building initiative

2)     Private initiative

3)     Implementation of the Best Practices

~An important focus regarding the Implementation of the Best Practices is on Monitoring the Energy Efficiency.

An example presented at the Exponential Manufacturing Summit, Boston 2016: GE placed sensors on machines that allows the monitoring of the Energy Consumption, dates that form the base for the best production decisions „ The information is so good it’s basically like allowing an airplane mechanic to fly a plane”. 

Smart Buildings

~ To maximize both Operational and Energy Efficiency

~Tracking Energy Efficiency and reducing Energy Waste

~Sustainability goals will continue to drive adoption of Smart Building technology

~Reducing the carbon footprint of a given property requires both close monitoring and actionable data insights on energy and water use in the building

~Networked sensors and analytics will provide information to empower building managers to control their assets better and reduce energy waste that can be harmful to the environment

~5G Connectivity allows for more advanced data exchange between Smart Buildings and in the future, Smart City

An example that could be like took from history being historical :`The Brock Center`

`Living Building`, The Brock Environmental Center the first structures commercial buildings in US; it uses its own Energy and Water, generates no waste, achieving the most advanced measure of sustainability in the build environment

`The Brock Center illustrates what can be done by committed organizations, working with the public sector, to ensure that energy production, water management, and waste handling not only have less environmental impact but actually give back to the surrounding communities and their ecology`

LEED Certification (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)

eadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is one of the most popular green building certification programs used worldwide. Developed by the non-profit U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) it includes a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings, homes, and neighborhoods[8] that aims to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently.[422]

LEED, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is a certification program for buildings and communities that guides their design, construction, operations and maintenance toward sustainability. It’s based on prerequisites and credits that a project meets to achieve a certification level: Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum.[423]

Smart Building Management System Return On Investment

Smart Building Management System, technology of the new era of Building Sustainability

Smart Building Management System needs a solution that can analyse real time Energy consumption. This is where Smart Energy sensors come in. These devices transmit real-time circuit level data to a central dashboard so users can see how systems are performing and how and when assets are consuming electricity.`

Smart Cities

Examples of Businesses initiatives in Smart Cities

~AT&T Technologies such as traffic monitoring, electric grid management and gunfire detection are set to be deployed. The company AT&T plans to partner with Cisco, Ericsson, GE, IBM, Qualcomm and other companies.

Re/code explains that AT&T’s portfolio includes sensor-enabled traffic signals that adjust to road conditions and intelligent lighting systems that dim automatically. It also would deploy technology that wirelessly matches empty parking spaces with drivers. To convince city leaders to incur the upfront costs, AT&T must convince them that the investments save money over time and solve recurring problems, AT&T Mobility CEO Glenn Lurie tells Re/code.

~Libelium-Sentilo Smart Cities Solution Kit: This kit allows real time monitoring of key parameters in cities, such as sound and light to make noise urban maps, or to develop adaptive lighting systems. Weather control and air quality applications can be carried out thanks to humidity and temperature sensors and pollution detectors (CO2, NO2, CO). It includes solution oriented software already integrated with Sentilo Platform. The data is sent to the Internet, using Ethernet and 4G

Smart Cities Connect Conference and Expo - Placing Cities First

Building upon the 2016 Smart Cities Innovation Summit, we are pleased to announce our program expansion and name change to the 2017 Smart Cities Connect Conference & Expo.[424]

Benchmark Energy

Usage and Control Demand Energy Charges using:

~Wireless Sensors : Energy data received from the sensors to the solution cloud based analytics platform through bridges

~Energy Management: `Affordable, scalable, cloud based solution that provides granular visibility into energy usage and delivers quick ROI, ensuring effective energy management and operational cost savings`

~Analyzing and Reporting Technology 

 The Fourth Industrial Revolution, World Economic Forum, Davos 2017

A very good description of the History Industrial Revolutions

` The speed of current breakthouughs has no historical precedent’ ‚ says Klaus Schwab, World Ecomonic Forum Founder

` In the future, talent more than capital will represent the critical factor of production and technological innovation will  lead to a supply-side miracle, with gains in efficiency and productivity `

`The First Industrial Revolution used water and steam power to mechanize production. The Second used electric power to create mass production. The Third used electronics and information technology to automate production. Now a Fourth Industrial Revolution is building on the Third, the digital revolution characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the cybernetical physical, digital, and biological systems`

`One of the features of The Fourth Industrial Revolution is that it doesn’t change what we are doing but it changes us` Klaus Schwab

And I would like to continue: because it changes us, will change how we are doing, and the differences can include `Abundant Clean Energy`

What can the Energy sector learn from MP3?

~An interview with Jim Carroll in GE Reports, I pick up 3 main ideas

How much will we be able to reduce the carbon footprint of the power industry, as technological innovation brings down the cost of renewables?

„ I have challenged utility CEOs to ask the question, “Could they be MP3’d?” Could the energy generation and distribution industry find itself in the same position as music companies did n the past — stuck defending an older and entrenched business model, rather than embracing new ideas, concepts and methodologies.”

How much will energy efficiency improve, with the help of the Industrial Internet and Internet of Things and Big Data analytics?

„Think about it this way: every device that is a part of our daily lives is about to become connected. That fundamentally changes the use and purpose of the device in major ways.”

„We are increasingly in a situation in which the future belongs to those who are fast. That might be a challenge for the energy and utility sector, but it’s a reality”

The importance of the Private Initiative, Private Capital in Renewable Energy Direction

Green Agriculture
Project that Converts Olive Cultivation Into a Climate Management Tool

Oliva Clima Project in Greece, has tracked challenges ClimateChange, introducing innovative techniques to convert olive cultivation into a climate management tool.

The project’s goals: reducing the greenhouse gases emissions, reducing carbon dioxide capture, revers the soil organic matter losses, capture CO2 from atmosphere and transfer to plants through photosynthesis and store it in plant tissue and soil.

~a link to Waste to Hydrocarbons and Fuels could be relevant

Platforms and applications developed for Big Data and IOT, Internet of Things

GE Predix cloud-based platform

GE’s digital thread from Predix cloud-based platform GE developed at its software headquarter. Predix is similar to iOS or Android, but built for machines. The platform allows developers to mine industrial data and write apps for everything from MRI scanners and jet engines to entire production facilities like offshore platforms and factories. The software supplies insights to operators who use them to make the machines run more efficiently.

GE Power’s brand-new Advanced Work is using the technology.

“The system will be getting real-time feedback from sensors on parts inside machines” 

“We’re trying to weave a digital thread around the entire railroad operation,”

There are some 21,000 GE locomotives pulling freight and passengers in 50 countries that will be connected in cloud. “The whole network will light up like a brain.”

Real time analytics and IOT Monetization with Kafka 

Kafka is designed as a distributed system that is easily scalable. It has support persistent messaging with disk structures that provide consistent performance, even with terabytes of stored messages.

It offers high throughput for both publishing and subscribing, supporting hundreds of thousands of messages per second, even with modest hardware. 

Kafka’s flexibility in supporting different producers and consumers, and its integration with a wide range of components like Storm, Flume and Spark, ensure that it can function as a key element even as the technology architecture changes to support future business needs.

Energy management as a discipline

Energy management as a definable management discipline began to emerge in the 1970s and 1980s after the oil crises of 1973/74 and 1979. Enterprises appointed energy managers to combat the significant rise in energy prices that occurred in those periods and over time a management approach and discipline was defined and codified. Improving the energy performance of any particular industrial process (or building) involves technical issues but is really a management problem. Many cost-effective energy efficiency technologies exist across all industries – applying them requires managemen[425]t.

The following are recommended features of an effective energy management system[425]:

  • Use consistent and simple language
  • Involve the whole firm, not just engineering or technical departments
  • Allocate clear responsibilities and resources
  • Create a culture in which established assumptions can be challenged
  • Integrate energy management into daily operations
  • Use appropriate performance measurements and feedback loops

IoT fuels IoE

Internet of Things has given rise to the [http://www.panpwr.com/blog/intelligent-energy-monitoring-internet-of-energyIntelligent Energy Monitoring Intelligent Energy Monitoring Internet of Energy]

~Energy infrastructure is increasingly becoming dynamic, responsive and interconnected

~`As a system, the Internet of Energy is a whole that is informed upon and shaped by its own components.`

~`The future will be powered through actionable energy insights streaming in from smart energy sensors.`

Superconductors and Superconductivity

See also the section on Superconductors.

The differences between superconductors and conventional materials where electric currents move through the materials.

~Unique Properties

  • Zero resistance to direct current
  • Extremely high current carrying density
  • Extremely low resistance at high frequencies
  • Extremely low signal dispersion
  • High sensitivity to magnetic field
  • Exclusion of externally applied magnetic field
  • Rapid single flux quantum transfer
  • Close to speed of light signal transmission

Zero resistance and high current density have a major impact on electric power transmission and also enable much smaller or more powerful magnets for motors, generators, energy storage, medical equipment and industrial separations. Low resistance at high frequencies and extremely low signal dispersion are key aspects in microwave components, communications technology and several military applications. Low resistance at higher frequencies also reduces substantially the challenges inherent to miniaturization brought about by resistive, or I2R, heating.

The high sensitivity of superconductors to magnetic field provides a unique sensing capability, in many cases 1000x superior to today's best conventional measurement technology. Magnetic field exclusion is important in multi-layer electronic component miniaturization, provides a mechanism for magnetic levitation and enables magnetic field containment of charged particles.

The final two properties form the basis for digital electronics and high speed computing well beyond the theoretical limits projected for semiconductors. All of these materials' properties have been extensively demonstrated throughout the world.

~Things that are stil Challenges

  • Cost
  • Refrigeration
  • Reliability
  • Acceptance

Forty years of development and commercialization of applications involving Low Temperature Supercondutor materials have demonstrated that a superconductor approach works best when it represents a unique solution to the need. Alternatively, as the cost of the superconductor will always be substantially higher than that of a conventional conductor, it must bring overwhelming cost effectiveness to the system.

The advent of HTS, High Temperature Superconductor, has changed the dynamic of refrigeration by permitting smaller and more efficient system cooling for some applications. Design, integration of superconducting and cryogenic technologies, demonstration of systems cost benefits and long term reliability must be met before superconductivity delivers on its current promise of major societal benefits and makes substantial commercial inroads into new applications.

~Superconductivity in Renewable Energy

The extraordinary electrical efficiency and power density characteristics of HTS, High Temperature Superconductor, offer clear benefits for wind energy generation. HTS generators can be more powerful and much smaller than conventional devices. This is expected to contribute to the increase in offshore wind energy generation, particularly units of up to 10 MW.

Use of superconducting wire in the wind allows for very slow speed generators, and high currents without losses, and precludes the need for a gearbox, one of the turbine’s heaviest components, thereby enabling smaller turbines – one third the size and a quarter of the weight to generate as much power as larger units. Eliminating the gearbox also reduces the number of bearings and other major failure-prone components, thereby reducing wind turbine maintenance needs and operating costs. Incorporating zero-resistance, HTS wire will boost efficiency and lead to smaller, lighter turbines which are also easier to transport, install and maintain.

~Superconductivity and Energy Storage

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a solution for storage of electrical energy in a powerful magnetic field. SMES systems have been in development for about three decades. Past devices that used low temperature superconductors however, were designed to supply power only for short durations, generally less than a few minutes. The recent development of HTS wire that enables enhanced performance at high magnetic fields is expected to reduce the cost of storing energy in a SMES device and thereby extend the duration during which power is available.

In order to help manage electricity supply load variability, SMES technology for longer term (hours) storage with quick charge and discharge capability is being explored.

~Superconductivity and Energy  Long Distance Transmission

Superconductor cables have 5-10 times the current carrying capacity of conventional copper cables of the same size. They have no dc losses and only small ac losses and power can, therefore, be transmitted at lower voltage and higher currents, offering the possibility of creating a fully green grid that connects the remote renewable generation sources with the consumers via these “green power superhighways.”

If HTS superconductor cables can live up to their promise of cutting grid transmission losses at acceptable expense, this will help the viability of wind and solar farms that must transmit their power over long distances to established distribution networks

How can Cybernetics help the Changes and the Innovation that people need?

*In 2015, my description on Cybernetics

The Economical Cybernetics is math applied on economy , based on relevant experiences, observations, that help to create micro and macro economical models; it is important to count on fitted and accurate statistical data;

~These models need to be transformed into logical flowcharts  and after that, into programs that help to implement the economical models.

Combining a structured, logical thinking, with a way to feel, that arrives to help to observe and to understand the things around and with a fitted way to communicate, the new cybernetics goals could be achieved:

*efficiency, efficacya systemical view of the situation in order to be able to make connections between the systemsa growth of a dynamical network, a good base on decisional activity

In the present and for the future, the new cybernetics with creativity could stand for the change, when is needed and for the innovation

Sustainability Scale

Energy technologies can be broadly categorised using the Sustainability Scale.[426] This takes into account all aspects of the technologies life-cycle, including its dependencies.

Proton Energy | Breakthrough Energy Xprize Competition

[Caution: Although there are some issues with the measurement of the proton, there are some potentially misleading conclusions being implied below in terms of a new energy source. We know a lot about the proton[427] [428]. We know about its spin and how to use that in MRI scanners; and we know what its energies are for given magnetic field strengths. We know about the nuclear forces and the energy corresponding to the mass of the nucleus (consisting of protons and neutrons) - that gives us nuclear fission and fusion energy. “the most realistic thing is that it's not new physics” - The harsh reality is that the proton radius is extremely hard to measure.[429]]

"Understanding and harnessing the universal spin mechanics of the proton."

BREAKTHROUGH ENERGY XPRIZE COMPETITION, a 9-year, 900-million dollar challenge to take

science to the next level by answering three fundamental questions about the proton:

1: Size.  2:  Universal spin mechanics.  3: Engineering extrapolation - for all the marbles.

Here’s the story:

One hundred years ago the measurement for the charge radius of the proton was established, and from there, the entire standard model in modern physics was developed.

However, in 2010, we discovered that our measurement for the radius of the proton (that we made a hundred years ago) was way off, and thus, the entire standard model in modern physics is starting to crumble because of this discrepancy.  This is a huge problem in modern physics and the center of controversy for physicists around the world (the proton problem).

"In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity.” - Albert Einstein

With the proton radius puzzle, as well as, the proton spin crisis, it is clear very little is actually known about the proton.  We see the proton displaying perpetual charge as well as perpetual spin.  However, we are lost in understanding its size, energy source, and universal spin mechanics.

When we solve for the universal spin mechanics of a proton, it may unlock the door to a future of breakthrough energy innovation beyond our wildest imagination.  It’s time for a breakthrough.

It’s time we understand the proton; and thus, it’s time for an international academic competition.

Breakthrough Energy Xprize Competition. A 9-year, 900-million dollar challenge for engineers and scientists around the world to answer three fundamental questions about the proton.  Size, spin mechanics, and engineering.

This contest starts by creating multiple teams of engineers within university or private.  Each team will tackle one question at a time and each question will have a specific contest duration worth millions.

The First Contest Duration: Size, 2-years, 50-million dollar prize purse.  Question:

  1. What data do we have regarding the new proton radius?
  2. What models do we have that predict the new proton radius?
  3. Which model is the most elegant and why (video presentation)?
  4. To WIN, each team will contribute regular updates regarding their research and results.  The best collaborative work will rise to the top and will be published to a global audience.  At the end of each contest duration all teams will vote and assign points to all other teams, ranking their research, results, and participation. Outside physics mediator’s, and the public, will be voting as well.
  5. At the end of contest duration one, 5-teams WIN a share of $50-million for their company or university.

From there, with the beginning of a new model in physics, we launch Contest Duration Two:

Spin Mechanics, 2-years, 150-million dollar prize purse.  Question:

  1. What mechanics and what energy source make the proton spin?
  2. Solve for the universal spin mechanics of the proton, and infer the technological implications (video demonstration).
  3. Same voting and point system, this time, 3-teams WIN a share of $150-million for their company or university.

With the new understanding of universal spin mechanics, we launch Contest Duration Three:

Engineering, 5-years, 600-million dollar prize purse.  Question:

  1. How best can we extrapolate these universal spin mechanics within engineering to harness this new energy source?
  2. 5-years of breakthrough energy research, development, and industrialization.
  3. 2-teams WIN a share of $600-million to help launch an industry.

Breakthrough Energy Xprize competition, a 9-year, 900-million dollar challenge scientists and engineer around the world to take science to the next level - and it all starts with the proton.  Thank you,

“If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.”

- Isaac Newton

This Breakthrough Energy Xprize competition is a rally call for all those physicists with the wherewithal to stand confidently upon the shoulders of giants and peer that much further into the mysteries of the universe.

Please watch these two educational videos to understand more about this proton problem as well as our impending scientific revolution:

Breakthrough Energy Xprize Competition: https://youtu.be/9VlWX7W2TAg

Proton Problem | Mass Ratio | Scientific Revolution: https://youtu.be/qbZOpT530WE 

Thank you,

PSV TURBO MACHINE

The interaction between hydrogen and nickel can be studied on the combination of multi models on the PSV (Plasma Super Vortex) turbo machine. The effects of infinity can be studied in hyperbolic model. A Weierstrass model has been implemented on the specific runner (disc model) of rotary machine.  The charge’s current density isn’t zero at infinity and as well, if the cooling process can occur at infinity, thus it is expected to make the specific condition. The jet plasma implanted on the blade can behave like infinitesimal size particles in the crystal lattice of nickel metal. Shear vortex and plasma vortex can appear on 2ND mode shape of runner. The shear rate of plasma vortex can  be increased by the increase of  shear force and torque on the adjustable pre-twisted blades, so that the density of bosons of the paired protons enhance inside the crystal lattice and behaves more like a solid and its kinetic energy approach to zero at near infinity.The interaction between two soliton waves can occur in the periodic region of mode shape on the runner disc and cause to make a dissymmetry in the medium at near infinity.In this case, the bosons of the paired protons can participate in the BEC process and the release of energy. 

See "Study of Released Energy in  PSV Turbo Machine" written by Farzan Amini[430] for additional details. 

UNDER LIQUID ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

“The use of mass of any liquid substance in cyclic order to capture its Kinetic Energy and Potential energy to produce Energy due to its relative motion and its molecular strength to resist and move any foreign object for the purpose of creating empty space inside its enclosed environment without involving any phase change or degradation will create an Energy production system which can run indefinitely without any additional mass input and any waste output.”

note : The original Indian patent application titled : " UNDER LIQUID ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION SYSTEM " has complete details for the below described process. The below point are general and limited in its disclosure to indicate normal working conditions.

1.0 Energy Source

Pressure is the key for all energy generation application wherein all manmade processed seek to generate pressure energy.

Day to day useful equipment such IC engine,Gas Turbine, Electrical motor,Propeller driven system ( ship,helicopter,hovercraft etc.), rocket propulsion Solid- liquid engines, scramjet Engine, Locomotive equipment etc. All this equipment tend to use energy source in order to generate pressure energy.

Earth Ocean present itself as an extremely suitable source for Hydro static pressure energy which tend to increase its pressure energy with it greater depth. An invention tending to capture this energy has been invented by inventor Ranganathan naidu Titled " Pump-less Liquid Processing technologies" [431] ( Ref page #.26). This technology produces Clean water ( capable to delivery water over long distance and remote location on earth) and Huge scale clean energy.This technology utilize hydro-static pressure thereby remove the electrical pump in various water based application.( another X-prize Competition should be made available for this application). An article for this technology[432]

Currently an system working with usage of water as the only process liquid in Under liquid electricity production system is unavailable as certain component need to be research further which would like dedicated research to engineering.

These component are basically high pressure withstanding solid component having density lower then water.

Any liquid present within a Vessel Possess unlimited Hydro-static Pressure energy as long as the liquid level within the vessel remains constant, this pressure Energy at its bottom-most point is useable.

The Objective of this new Type of Energy generating system is to effectively utilize this unused natural form of Pressure Energy by removing the high pressure Liquid to an turbine and re-inject this liquid back into the Liquid reservoir using un-conventional technology.

2.0 Criteria for New Clean Energy technology

1. An Energy Generating Technology which does not emit any type of Polluting content in to the atmosphere during its process of Energy generation.

2. An Energy Generating Technology which can be self sustaining once operational and will operate continuously without any additional mass input.

3. A Technology which can be made in Low - High Capacity category capable to be designed to sustain Energy requirement for Individual ,Industrial, Space Exploration and civilian Infrastructure operations.

4. Long Term Energy Solution > 100 years without incurring major capital Re-investment.

5. capacity - 50 - 100 kwh prototype.

6. Efficiency of the design should be minimum 70 %.

7. operational feature 24/7 , non dependent on seasonal weather or other natural conditions.

8. The System should be capable to be used for Energy generation in any planet/asteroid with natural /artificial gravity.

9. The technology should be capable to be made in Gigawatt Hour capacity.

10. It is extremely essential that any proposed technology for selection should clearly indicate the Total useful energy supplied for grid = Total energy generated - total energy lost in its operation.

10.1 Typically many invention indicate a Hidden energy source " unknown energy source" which cannot be proven and the inventor cannot clearly explain the gain of its free energy, some inventor tend to display only the energy balance wherein the mass balance /unknown factor is not computed. ( it is impossible to design such system for long term safe operation unless and until all physical and chemical variable are known).

10.2 Many Motor based invention indicate to generate more energy then what is typically being consumed by them. ( such Invention need to provide mass balance calculation where it should be understood any moving component on earth is effected by the force of gravity which tend to provide an equal and opposite force which try to bring any moving object to state of rest).

11. The technology selected should run continuously for a certain period (month/year) which should be decide by the event sponsor/funding party to demonstrate performance.

12. The energy generating technology should meet criteria and respect all the rules of thermodynamics.

13. Minimal operating cost for the entire period of operation > 100 years.

3.0 UNDER LIQUID SPACE CREATOR DEVICE

This device is an invention which intend to utilize the pressure energy provided by hydro-static energy. These unit are placed deep within the liquid reservoir. Typically model suggested consist of a Cylindrical vessel ( A) for collection of turbine process liquid and maintain empty space deep inside the liquid depth with one upper end openable by an valve arrangement and other side plugged with an moveable plunger assembly.

The Plunger Assembly (B) operate on the principal of buoyancy requiring the use of an high density liquid versus low density object currently mercury with iron-tungsten combination. The Plunger assembly is design to move inward within the cylindrical assembly ( A) & sustain the dead load of the liquid content within the cylindrical vessel(A). The Plunger Assembly also provide sealing at the other lower end of the Cylindrical Assembly (A).

4.0 THE PROCESS

From within the reservoir, high pressure liquid is withdrawn and provided to an turbine which generate Clean Energy. This Turbine Process low pressure liquid is completely filled into the initially empty Cylindrical Vessel (A) of the UNDER LIQUID SPACE CREATOR DEVICE wherein after one cycle of liquid fill up , upper end openable valve arrangement (A1) is opened causing the external high pressure liquid to mix with the turbine processed low pressure liquid. This process provides the turbine processed low pressure liquid automatic gained of free pressure energy which has been lost at the turbine as well as arrange reintroduction of the liquid which was removed from the reservoir to feed the turbine unit recycled back into the liquid reservoir.

The Plunger Assembly (B) move within the Cylindrical assembly (A) due to positive buoyancy effect created due to removal of buoyancy liquid effectively removing the turbine processed liquid from the cylindrical Assembly (A) thereby returning the liquid back into the reservior. The Valve arrangement (A1) closes when the Plunger assembly (B) is in its upper position within the Cylindrical Vessel ( A).

The Plunger Assembly (B) moves down Due to negative buoyancy effect induce by addition of Buoyancy Liquid within the plunger Assembly (B), this action recreates the empty space inside the cylindrical Assembly (A).

GAIN OF FREE ENERGY

It should be observe and noted that when the low pressure turbine processed liquid is expose to hydro-static pressure high pressure liquid present deep within the reservoir , the low pressure turbine processed liquid has instantaneously gained pressure energy which was lost to the turbine propeller which in turn was used to rotate the alternator unit to generate electrical energy.

The gain is pressure energy is free and is readily available as long as the liquid level within the reservoir remain at it designed limits.

USE OF HIGH DENSITY LIQUID VERSUS LOW DENSITY SOLID MOVEABLE OBJECT.

Numerous invention around the world by many inventor tend to utilize in their invention an iron and water based combination to extract useful energy. it should be noted iron with density 7900 kg/m3 is 7.9 time heavier then water 1000 kg/m3.

it should be understood by all such inventor buoyancy application using such combination will violate the rule of thermodynamics which state that Energy can only be transferred from a high density state ( Mercury liquid in my case ) to a lower density state ( iron-tungsten-mercury combination lower density< Hg) without the use of an external energy source.

wheres other buoyancy application when a lower density state ( water ) transfer it energy to do work on to a higher density state ( iron) will not be successful in it application unless and until it is provide with additional supply from an external energy source.

The law of thermodynamic can be applicable to heat,magnetism,electrical flow, pressure flow or density, whereas in all such physical parameter energy will flow from higher side to lower side under normal operating conditions.

EMPTY SPACE

In order to utilize the enormous never ending pressure Energy of liquid/gaseous system which is under high pressure creation of empty space in such system at the its bottom most point which is a high pressure zone present a technological advancement which is yet to be tapped upon.

POWER SOURCE FOR PLANET MARS

The Only workable energy source currently being used for outer space exploration are nuclear energy and solar energy. I would like to propose the Under Liquid Electricity Production Technology as an singular technology which meet the stringent requirement for such application.

1.Nuclear System depend on a cooling system which ensure safety for the process user, any damage to cooling system would result in uncontrollable heat and escape of nuclear radiation. Rectification of such problem on planet mars maybe not be feasible due to want to spare parts ( Pump,pipe,valves,gasket,fitting and other sophisticated components ). Handling of such situation on far distant planet can only work in event a fast mean of transportation can be invented.

2. Solar Energy : The Efficiency of such system has reach <35% at it prime capacity ,over a period of time the efficiency is bound to reduce, critical life supporting essential system cannot be made to depend of solar technology & constant observation need to be kept on this system in ensure primary component are working under satisfactory conditions .

3. The ULEPS technology provide us an excellent opportunity negating the deviation displayed by the above 2 technology and provide an robust power supply as per actual design condition meant for continuous operation for long term application.

5.0 Component required to make this invention an practical small size prototype

5.01 Readily available component

  1. Liquid reservoir iron based.
  2. Turbine -alternator for handling process liquid - Mercury.
  3. An energy storage system which can stored the energy generated by turbine-alternator unit.
  4. Intermediate tank iron based.
  5. High pressure pipe ,fitting,valves, Motorized valve, hose,limit switches.
  6. High pressure seal.
  7. Hydraulic system to provide pressure energy working to incorporate other ULEPS technology.
  8. centrifugal pump.
  9. Rail element for vertical restricited movement for moving object.
  10. Additional storage tank for various equipment.
  11. Programmable logic controller or solid state PCB based controller, circuit breakers.
  12. 2nd Generation game changing component ( Under patent filing product not disclosed here).

5.02 Specifically required fabricated component

  1. Under liquid space creator.

1.1 external structure made of iron-tungsten combination.

1.2 Holding Cylindrical vessel (A) made of iron-tungsten combination.

1.3 Plunger Assembly made of Iron-tungsten-mercury combination.

1.4 liquid holding chamber for plunger assembly.

1.5 X-shaped pipeline for gas, liquid and electric wire routing.

1.6 Hydraulic shocker absorber assembly.

5.03 Additional research need

  1. Physical property for iron-tungsten combination as required by design to predict physical properties and chemical properties.
  2. Asserting negative buoyancy limit,positive buoyancy limit and neutral buoyancy limit for iron-tungsten-mercury component with time period needed for required vertical movement.
  3. pressure study for buoyancy changing mode from negative to neutral mode (UL/Lower Limit )and positive mode (Upper Limit /LL).

Proof Of Concept for 1st Generation Process : Proof Of concept -Under Liquid electricity Production system [433]

Invented by Ranganathan Naidu [434]

Proof Of Concept for 2nd Generation Process : To Be Prepared

FAQ : This place can be used for anyone within the forum or outside the forum who would like to comment on the above technology

Question No.1 :

Disclaimer : Any doubt/ missing component/information can be freely checked with the inventor @ naiduranganathan@gmail.com

Sonofusion / Bubble Fusion / Sonoluminescence

Bubble fusion is the non-technical name for a nuclear fusion reaction to occur inside extraordinarily large collapsing gas bubbles created in a liquid during acoustic cavitation. The more technical name is sonofusion.[435]

Sonoluminescence[436] can occur when a sound wave of sufficient intensity induces a gaseous cavity within a liquid to collapse quickly. This cavity may take the form of a pre-existing bubble, or may be generated through a process known as cavitation. Sonoluminescence in the laboratory can be made to be stable, so that a single bubble will expand and collapse over and over again in a periodic fashion, emitting a burst of light each time it collapses. For this to occur, a standing acoustic wave is set up within a liquid, and the bubble will sit at a pressure anti-node of the standing wave. The frequencies of resonance depend on the shape and size of the container in which the bubble is contained.Spectral measurements have given bubble temperatures in the range from 2300 K to 100 K, the exact temperatures depending on experimental conditions including the composition of the liquid and gas.[437]

"Sonoluminescence arises from acoustic cavitation -- the formation, growth and implosion of small gas bubbles in a liquid blasted with sound waves above 18,000 cycles per second. The collapse of these bubbles generates intense local heating." (PhysOrg Mar. 2, 2005)

Nuclear Fusion from Shock Wave Bubble Cavity Collapse in Liquids

Bubble collapse in liquids is an alternate method some groups are looking at for creating the conditions of hot nuclear fusion. Note this approach has nothing to do with 'cold fusion', or low energy nuclear fusion (LENR)[438]. The pressures and temperatures inside gas bubble collapse in a dense liquid can reach extraordinarily high values[439], and some propose they can reach nuclear fusion conditions. This has not yet been achieved so the approach is more speculative than other hot nuclear fusion approaches which have been demonstrated. The sonoluminescence effect demonstrates gas in the collapsing bubble does at least reach plasma conditions, hence the interest in pursuing research and development of the approach[440][441][442][443][444][445]. One major challenge with studying and understanding bubble collapse is the complex nature of the interface between the liquid and gas, and the complex geometry of the collapsing gas space, since it does not remain spherical on collapse[446][447][448][449]. Reentrant jets are formed, and some believe the shock front of the jets created from bubble collapse can be utilized to better achieve fusion conditions[450]. There is still controversy in the science community over the ability for bubble cavity collapse to reach nuclear fusion conditions, but it is not understood well enough yet for anyone to say with certainty it will not work[451]. A well funded UK startup with a top academic team is making a serious attempt at producing bubble cavity collapse nuclear fusion[452][453]. A 1982 granted patent for a liquid metal sonofusion reactor has been cited numerous times by current nuclear fusion startups, such as General Fusion, seemingly providing useful knowledge and background for developments which may yet pay off[454].

Professor Rusi Taleyarkhan

Purdue University is reportedly investigating the research of Professor Rusi Taleyarkhan, who said he produced nuclear fusion in a tabletop experiment. A team led by Taleyarkhan, a nuclear engineering professor, claimed it achieved nuclear fusion by blasting a container of liquid solvent with strong ultrasonic vibrations, The New York Times reported Wednesday.

The researchers said the vibrations collapsed tiny gas bubbles in the liquid, heating them to millions of degrees -- hot enough to initiate fusion. Scientists told The Times that, if true, the phenomenon -- known as sonofusion or bubble fusion -- could have far-reaching applications, including the generation of energy.[455]

Roger Stringham

Roger Stringham is a very important figure in the new energy field. Roger was the first cover feature on Eugene Malove's Infinite Energy Magazine.[456] Roger's brought his scientific exploration of sonofusion into the conversations trying to explain the Cold Fusion / LENR phenomena. In 2013, Roger gave a presentation at ICCF-18 titled Conservation of Energy and Momentum, a Cavitation Heat Event.[457] Another work by Stringham was titled When Bubble Cavitation Becomes Sonofusion.[458]

Neutrino

[I'm not sure this is relevant: it's probably not an energy source - as they hardly interact with our world, tending to pass right through the Earth.]

Scientists are fascinated by neutrino oscillations because they may reveal phenomena that cannot be explained by the Standard Model, the highly successful but incomplete theory of particle physics. "The neutrino is one of the least understood particles," says Richard Van de Water of the MiniBooNE team. "If there's extra physics, it's a good place for nature to hide it."[459]

In 2014, US and UK governments agreed to fund a $1.5 billion neutrino project called FermiLab Accelerator Complex outside Chicago, IL.[460]

Molten Salt Reactors

Terrestrial Energy / Oak Ridge

Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tenn. entered a collaboration with Canadian firm Terrestrial Energy (TEI)[461] to develop the firm's Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR) technology to the engineering blueprint stage -- and perhaps to regain some North American technological leadership in advanced nuclear power. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) built and operated the first molten salt reactor (MSR) in the late 1960s. It was a 7.4-megawatt (thermal) test unit, and its design was being considered for a nuclear-powered bomber. Terrestrial Energy's reactor is based on ORNL's denatured MSR design.[462][463]

It uses normal low-enriched uranium but can also be use thorium and other actinide elements as fuel. See also: Thorium Reactors.

Transatomic

Transatomic is a US, VC-backed startup founded by MIT nuclear engineers, pioneering energy technology that generates clean, safe and affordable nuclear power.[464]

"The nuclear industry of the 1950s was defined by an inexhaustible optimism and rigorous scientific thinking. Anything was possible, and nuclear energy promised to power the world. Revolutionary designs were prolific. Today, however, this technological diversity has been narrowed, and the industry has become locked into one design: the light water reactor. We’re challenging this strategy and have returned to the beginning to explore another path, and another design – the molten salt reactor. This simple reactor design, updated with modern technology and materials, has the potential to revolutionize the nuclear industry."

Solid State Generators

JTEC - Johnson Thermoelectric Energy Conversion[465]

The Johnson Thermo-Electrochemical Convertor (JTEC) is an all solid-state device that operates on the Ericsson cycle. Equivalent to Carnot, the Ericsson Cycle offers the maximum theoretical efficiency available from a converter operating between two temperatures. The JTEC system utilizes the electro-chemical potential of fluid pressure applied across a proton conductive membrane (PCM). The membrane and a pair of electrodes form a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) similar to those used in fuel cells. However, in the JTEC the hydrogen circulates continually inside the device, which is different from a fuel cell in which hydrogen is consumed and must be continually replenished.[466]

Dr. Lonnie Johnson is President and Founder of Johnson Research & Development Co., Inc., a technology development company, and its spin-off companies, Excellatron Solid State, LLC, and Johnson Electro Mechanical Systems, LLC. Johnson holds a B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering, an M.S. degree in Nuclear Engineering, and an honorary Ph.D. in Science from Tuskegee University. Upon graduation, he joined the Air Force and served as an Advanced Space Systems Requirements Officer at Strategic Air Command headquarters. He was twice awarded the Air Force Achievement Medal and the Air Force Commendation Medal. After leaving the military, he joined the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California. During his nine year career with JPL, he received multiple achievement awards from NASA for his work in spacecraft system design for the Galileo Mission to Jupiter and the Mars Observer projects, and was instrumental in the Cassini Mission to Saturn. In 1989, he formed his own engineering firm and licensed his most famous invention, the SuperSoaker® water gun, to Larami Corporation. Two years later, the SuperSoaker, which has generated over $1 billion in retail sales, became the number one selling toy in America. Currently, Lonnie Johnson holds over 100 patents, with over 20 more pending, and is the author of several publications on spacecraft power systems. Johnson's companies, Excellatron Solid State and Johnson Electro Mechanical Systems (JEMS), are developing revolutionary energy technology.[467]

JEMS has developed he JTEC, a breakthrough technology that directly converts thermal energy into electrical energy. Unlike traditional multi-step engines, the JTEC device converts heat directly into electricity in a single step with unrivaled efficiency. The JTEC is able to harvest energy from ambient environments, meaning it has the ability to use waste heat to produce clean energy. The JTEC matches the reliability of solid-state solar cells with even greater efficiency than mechanical Stirling engines, making it the most advanced technology currently available for clean energy production.[468]

Echellon Solid State, LLC is another Dr. Lonnie Johnson company.[469]

Bibliography of Research on Other Technologies

JOURNAL OF NEW ENERGY

This is a list of work compiled by members of the Institute for New Energy and covers the history of this movement from the late 1800's to 1998

VOL 1, 1996

VOL 2, 1997

VOL 3, 1998-99

VOL 4, 1999 - through Number 1

JBIB_4N1.PDF last update 9.8.1999

A.E. Akimov, G.I. Shipov, “Torsion Fields and Their Experimental Manifestation,” Proc. Int. Scientific Conf. New Ideas in Natural Science, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 1996. (NEN March 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 67-84, 53 refs, 10 figs.

A.E. Akimov (Pres., Univ. Communication Corp., Costa Mesa, CA), “Heuristic Discussion of the Problem of Finding Long Range Interactions, EGS-Concepts,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 55-80, 177 refs, 20 figs.

Camil Alexandrescu (Romania), Letter to Editor, "A Letter About Nicolae Vasilescu Karpen," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 144-150, 4 figs. (NEN Aug 1996)

P. Anastasovski, H. Fox, K. Shoulders, "A New Approach to the Cosmic Red-Shift and to the Cosmic Microwave Sources," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 79-87, 4 refs, 5 figs. (NEN Aug 1996)

P. Anastasovski (Fac. Tech. & Metall., Univ. “Kiril Metodij”, Slopje, Macedonia), “Possibility for Special Relativity to be Extended for v > c Related with Vacuum Energy,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1997, pp 6-26, 7 refs, 3 figs.

N.V. Antonenko, G.G. Adamian, W. Scheid, V.V. Volkov (Inst. Theor. Phys. der Justus-Liebig-Univ., Glessen, Germany), “Competition Between Complete Fusion and Quasi-Fission in Reactions with Heavy Nuclei,” AIP Conf. Proc., 425 (Tours Symp. on Nuc. Phys. III, 1997) pp 51-60 ( English) 1998. J. New Energy, Proc. INE”98 Symp. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, abstract only, p 178.

N.V. Antonenko, G.G. Adamian, W. Scheid, V.V. Volkov (Inst. Theor. Phys. der Justus-Liebig-Univ., Glessen, Germany), “Competition Between Complete Fusion and Quasi-Fission in Dinuclear Systems,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., A, 110A (9-10), pp 1143-1148 (English) 1997. J. New Energy, Proc. INE”98 Symp. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, abstract only, p 178.

E.E. Antonov, V.G. Dresvyannikov, V.I. Popovich (Sci.-Tech. Ctr. Coal Energy Technol., Kiev, Ukraine), “Water Molecules Conversion in Low Pressure Discharges,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 6-16, 8 refs, 6 figs, 1 table.

E.E. Antonov, V.G. Dresvyannikov, V.I. Popovich (Sci.-Tech. Ctr. Coal Energy Technol., Kiev, Ukraine), "Some Features of H2O Low-Pressure Discharge in Pulse Mode," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 69-75, 3 refs, 4 figs.

T. Aoki, Y. Kurata, H. Ebihara, N. Yoshikawa (Isotope Ctr., Univ. Tsukube, Japan), “Search for Nuclear products of the D+D Nuclear Fusion,” Int. J. Soc. Mater. Eng. Resour., 6(1), pp 22-25 (English) 1998. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, Proc. INE’98 Symp. for New Energy, Aug 1998, abstract only, p 178.

Yoshiaki Arata, M.J.A., Yue-Chang Zhang (Osaka Univ., Ibaraki, Japan), “Deuterium Nuclear Reaction Process Within Solid,” Proc. Japan Acad., Ser B, vol 72, no 9 (1996), pp 179-184. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1997, pp 27-36, 6 refs, 11 figs. J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, pp 130.

Y. Arata, Y-C. Zhang (Welding Res. Inst., Osaka, Univ., Japan), “Presence of Helium (4He, 3He) Confirmed in Page1of 25

Highly Deuterated Pd-Black by the New Detecting Methodology,” J. High Temp. Soc., vol 23, (1997), p 110. Also, Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 8. (in Japanese, Engl. Ab.). J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, p 119.

Y. Arata, Y-C. Zhang (Welding Res. Inst., Osaka, Univ., Japan), “Helium (4He, 3He) Within Deuterated Pd-Black,” Proc. Jap. Acad. 73 B (1997) pp 1-5. Also, Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 8. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, p 119.

Yoshiaki Arata, Yu-Chang Zhang (Osaka Univ., Japan), “Presence of Helium (4He, 3He) Confirmed in Highly Deuterated Pd Black by the New Detecting Methodology,” Koon Gakkaishi, vol 23(3), pp 111-118 (Japanese) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, pp 128.

Naoto Asami, Toshio Senjuh, Hiroshi Kamimura, Masao Sumi, Elliot Kennel, Takeshi Sakai, Kenya Mori, Hisashi Watanabe, Kazuaki Matsui (R&D Centre New H. Energy, Inst. Appl. Energy, Sapporo, Japan), “Material Characteristics and Behavior of Highly Deuterium Loaded Palladium by Electrolysis,” J. Alloys Cmpd., vol 253-254, pp 185-190 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, p 124.

Harold Aspden (Sabberton Publishing, Southampton, England), “The Crystalline Vacuum,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 46-53, 3 refs.

Patrick Bailey (Pres., INE, Los Altos, CA), Hal Fox (FIC, UT), “A Review of the Patterson Power Cell,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97221. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only). J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, p 126.

Patrick Bailey (Pres., INE, Los Altos, CA), Toby Grotz (Wireless Engineering, Craig CO), James J. Hurtak (Acad. Future Sci., Los Gatos, CA), “Survey and Critical Review of Recent Innovative Energy Conversion Technologies,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97216. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only p 126.

Patrick Bailey (Pres., INE, Los Altos, CA), Nancy C. Worthington (UAM Foundation, Redwood City, CA), “History and Applications of HAARP Technologies: The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97216. (NEN Aug. 1997, Ab. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, p 126.

Patrick Bailey (Pres., INE, Los Altos, CA), Toby Grotz (Wireless Engineering, Craig, CO), James J. Hurtak (Academy for Future Science, Los Gatos, CA), “Review and Status of Reported Innovative Energy Conversion Technologies, Contrasted Using a Consistent R&D Ranking Scale,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97212. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, p 126.

Patrick Bailey (Pres., INE, Los Altos, CA), Toby Grotz (Wireless Engineering, Craig, CO), James J. Hurtak (Academy for Future Science, Los Gatos, CA), “The need for Accurate Reporting and Archival of Data for Advanced Energy Conversion Devices: The INE Data Base,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 5-11, 10 refs, 3 tables.

Robert Bass, Rod Neal, Stan Gleeson, Hal Fox, "Electro-Nuclear Transmutations: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in an Electrolytic Cell," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 81-87, 6 refs, 1 fig, 1 table. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, College Station, TX, 1996. (NEN Oct. 1996)

Robert W. Bass (Innoventech, Inc., Pahrump, NV), “Experimental Evidence Favoring Brightsen’s Nucleon Cluster Model,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 59-61, 8 refs.

Robert Bass (Innoventech, Inc., Pahrump, NV), “Anti-Gravity Implies Infinite Free Energy,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 76-78, 4 refs.

Page2of 25

Robert W. Bass, “A High School Level Exposé of the Mistake Upon Which the ERAB Report is Based,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 22-28.

T.E. Bearden, "Use of Asymmetrical Regauging and Multi valued Potentials to Achieve Over-Unity Electromagnetic Engines," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 60-78, 21 refs, 8 figs. (NEN Aug. 1996)

Tom Bearden, “Purported Over-Unity Results by Hewlett Packard,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, Letter to Editor, pp 98-107.

T.E. Bearden, “EM Corrections Enabling a Practical Unified Field Theory with Emphasis on Time-Charging Interactions of Longitudinal EM Waves,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug. 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 12-28, 37 refs, 8 figs, 1 table.

Gilbert Bellanger (Comm. à l’Energie Atomique Ctr. D’Etudes de Valduc, Dept. Tritium, Is sur Tille, France), Jean Jacques Rameau (Domains Univ., St. Martin d’Heres, France), “Determination of Tritium Adsorption and Diffusion Parameters in a Palladium-Silver Alloy by Electrochemical Impedance Analysis,” Fusion Technol., vol 32, no 1, Aug. 1997, pp 94-105, 12 refs, 14 figs, 4 tables. (NEN Oct 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, p 119.

M. Sue Benford (Dublin, OH, USA), Biological Nuclear Reactions: Empirical Data Describes Unexplained SHC Phenomenon,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 19-27, 21 refs, 2 tables.

Chuck Bennett (Sacramento, CA), “Einstein’s Mass Dilation as Aether Drag,” NEN, vol 4, no 12, April 1997, p 7, 3 refs. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1997, pp 74-76, 3 refs.

Chuck Bennett (Sacramento, CA), “A Sea of Neutrinos as the Luminiferous Medium,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 30-32, 11 refs, 1 fig.

A. Bertin, M. Bruski, V.M. Bystritskii, A. Vezziani, S. Vechchi, M. Villa, A. Vitale, Ya. Voznyak, D. Galli (Ob’edinennyi Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanii. Dubna, Russia), “Absence of the Tritium Yield in the Metal-Deuterium Systems,” Yad Fiz., vol 59, no 6, (1996), pp 976-980, in Russian; Chem. Abs. vol 126, no 1 (1997). (NEN Oct 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, p 119.

Atul Bhadkamkar, Hal Fox (FIC, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), “Electron Charge Cluster Sparking in Aqueous Solutions,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 62-68, 28 refs, 2 figs.

Atul Bhadkamkar, “Developments in Rechargeable Batteries,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 50- 54, 11 refs, 1 fig, 1 tables.

Giacomo Bisio (Energy & Conditioning Dept. Univ. Genoa, Italy), “Thermodynamics of Magnetic Systems and Some Applications,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97001. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, pp 126-127.

J.O'M. Bockris, G.H. Lin (Dept. Chem., TX A&M Univ.), R. Bush (Phys. Dept. Cal-Polytech. Inst., Pomona, CA), R.A. Monti (Inst. TRSRE, Italy), “Do Nuclear Reactions take Place Under Chemical Stimulation?’ J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 5-8, 25 refs. Proc. 1st. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, 1996, Texas A&M.

J.O'M. Bockris, G.H. Lin (Dept. Chem., TX A&M Univ.), R. Bush (Phys. Dept. Cal-Polytech. Inst., Pomona, CA), "The Rediscovery of Cold Nuclear Reactions," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 17-22, 36 refs, 1 fig, 1 table. (NEN Aug. 1996)

J.O’M. Bockris (Dept. Chem., Texas A&M Univ.), “The Complex Conditions Needed to Obtain Heat from D-Pd Systems,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 210-218, 40 refs, 2 figs. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, TX, 1996.

Page3of 25

H.L. Bonilla (Phil. Aether-Magnetic Inst. Technol., Philadelphia, PA), "On the Illusion Derived from Timeless Systems," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 92-94, 7 figs. (NEN Aug. 1996)

R.A. Brightsen (Clustron Sciences Corp., Reston, VA), "Correspondence of the Periodic Table of Beta-Stable Nuclides with the Classical Periodic Table of Elements," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, 1996, pp 75-78. (NEN March 1996)

Paul M. Brown (Particle Power Systems, Aurora, CO), “Tritiated Amorphous Silicon Power Cells,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug. 14-15, 1998, Salt Lake City, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall, 1998, pp 33-37, 13 refs, 6 figs.

Paul M. Brown (Particle Power Systems, Aurora, CO), “Solving the Nuclear Waste Problem Through Applied Physics,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug. 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall, 1998, pp 38-46, 8 refs, 11 figs.

Robert Bush (Cal-Poly, Pomona), "Electrolytically Stimulated Cold Nuclear Synthesis of Strontium from Rubidium," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 28-38, 7 refs, 7 figs. Proc. Low-Energy Transmutation Conf., Texas A&M Univ., June 19, 1995. (NEN July 1995)

Robert Bush (Cal-Poly, Pomona), "Can the Electron Catalyzed Fusion Model (ECFM) Account for Light Water Fusion?" J. New Energy , vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 63-67, 13 refs, 2 figs. Proc. 1st Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, Texas A&M Univ., 1995. (NEN July 1995)

Robert T. Bush (Phys. Dept., Cal-State Poly., Pomona, CA), “Cold Fusion/Cold Fission to Account for Radiation Remediation,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 32-42, 9 refs, 8 tables.

V.S. Bushuyev, V.B. Genodman, L.N. Jerikhina, S.P. Kuznetsov, Yu.A. Lapushkin, I.P. Matviyenko, A.I. Nikitenko, A.D. Perekrestenko, N.P. Saposchnikov, S.M. Tolkonikov, A.M. Tzkhovrebov (USA), “Experiments on Detection of Nuclear Radiation at Heavy Water Electrolysis,” J. Opt. Res., vol 4, no 2/3, 1996, pp 171-179 (Eng.); Nova Science Pub. Chem. Abs., vol 126, no 16, 1997. (NEN Feb 1998) J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, pp 127.

Vyach M. Bystritsky, V.M. Grebenyuk, S.S. Parzhitski, F.M. Penkov, V.T. Sidorov, V.A. Stolupin, T.l. Bulgakov, G.A. Mesyats, A.A. Sinebryukhov, B.A. Sinebryukhov, S.S. Chaikovsky, A.B. Luchinsky, N.A. Ratakhin, S.A. Sorokin, V.M. Bystritskii, A. Toor, M. Filipowicz, A. Gula, E. Lacki, J. Wozniak, E. Gula (Joint Inst. Nucl. Res., Dubna, Russia), “A New Approach in the Experimental Studies of Nuclear Reactions at Ultra Low Energies,” Nukleonika, 42(4), pp 775-793 (English) 1997. Proc. INE”98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, abstract only, p 178.

Albert Cau (A.R.T., Paris, France), "Natural Nuclear Synthesis of Super Heavy Elements (SHE)," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 155-183, 8 refs, 10 figs. Proc. 2nd. Conf. On Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, 1996, Texas. (NEN Oct. 1996)

E. Cerron-Zeballos, I. Crotty, D. Hatzifotiadou, J. Lamas Valverde, M.S.C. Williams, A. Zichichi (LAA Project, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland), “Investigation of Anomalous Heat Production in Hi-H Systems,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., A, vol 109A(12), pp 1645-1654 (English) 1996; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, p 125.

Lali G. Chatterjee (Cumberland Univ., Lebanon, TN), Sunit K. Mandal (Jadavpur Univ., Phys. Dept., Calcutta, India), “Can We Increase the Application Prospects of Muon-Catalyzed Fusion,” Fusion Technol., vol 32, no 2, Sept.1997,pp246-252,14refs,3figs,7tables. J.NewEnergy,vol2,no2,Summer1997,abstractonly,p119.

Suhe Chen, Dalun Wang, Gaoxian Cui, Mei Wang, Yibei Fu, Xinwei Zhang, Wushou Zhang (Beijing Inst. Appl. Phys. Computational Math., Beijing, P.R. China), “X-Ray Diagnostics in Gas Discharge,” Hewuli Dongtai, vol 12(3),

Page4of 25

pp 58-60 (Chinese) 1995; J. New Energy, vol 2, no 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, pp 126.

E.T. Cheng, R.J. Cerbone (TSI Res., Inc., Solana Beach, CA), “Prospect of Nuclear Waste Transmutation and Power Production in Fusion Reactors,” Fusion Technol., vol 30(3, Pt. 2B), pp 1654-1658 (English) 1996; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, pp 131.

Dan Chicea (Phys. Dept., Univ. "Lucian Blaga," Siblu, Romania), “Electron Clusters - Possible Deuterium Fusion Catalyzers,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1997, pp 37-43, 9 refs.

Dan Chicea (Phys. Dept., Univ. "Lucian Blaga," Siblu, Romania), “Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions,” Elemental Energy (“Cold Fusion”), no 22, pp 36-39. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, p 120.

Dan Chicea (Phys. Dept., Univ. "Lucian Blaga," Siblu, Romania), “A Note on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 30-32, 22 refs.

Scott R. & Talcott A. Chubb (Oakton Int. Corp. Arlington, VA), “Small Crystals Aid Cold Fusion,” Am. Phys. Soc. Bull., 20 March 1997, 14:43 session “O” 18.2. (NEN Nov 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, pp 132.

Scott R. & Talcott A. Chubb (Oakton Int. Corp. Arlington, VA), “Paired-Particle Coherence in a Lattice,” Am. Phys. Soc. Bull., 20 March 1997, 14:30 session “O” 18. (NEN Nov 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, pp 132.

Scott R. & Talcott A. Chubb (Oakton Int. Corp. Arlington, VA), “2-Deuteron Wave Function,” ” Am. Phys. Soc. Bull., 20 March 1997, 14:30 session “O” 18 6. (NEN Nov 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2 nos 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, pp 132.

Scott R. & Talcott A. Chubb (Oakton Int. Corp. Arlington, VA), “Ion Band States, Many-Body Effects, Implications for Cold Fusion (CF),” Am. Phys. Soc. Bull., 1996 session “H” 31 61. (NEN Nov 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2 nos 3/4, Winter 1997, abstract only, pp 133.

Scott R. & Talcott A. Chubb (Oakton Int. Corp. Arlington, VA), “Overlap Properties of D+ Ion Band State Matter: Implications of Cold Fusion,” Am. Phys. Soc. Bull., 1996 session “H” 31 120. (NEN Nov 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2 nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 132, abstract only.

Thomas Claytor (Los Alamos Nat. Lab., NM), "Tritium Production from a Low Voltage Deuterium Discharge of Palladium and Other Metals," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 118, 5 refs, 4 figs. Proc. 1st. Conf. Low- Energy Nucl. Reactions, Texas A&M Univ., 1995. (NEN July 1995)

T.N. Claytor, M.J. Schwab, D.G. Tuggle (Los Alamos Nat. Lab. NM), "Tritium Production from Palladium and Palladium Alloys," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, p 89, abstract only. Proc. 2nd Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reaction, College Station, TX, 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

Warren Cooley (Salem, OR), “The Fullerene Fusion Engine,’ Cold Fusion, 21, pp 56-57 (English) 1997. Proceedings INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 178, abstract only.

Remi Cornwall (Friends of John Gault, Forest Hill, London), “Work in Constant Entropy Systems,” Infinite Energy, vol 3, nos 13-14, Mar-Jun 1997, pp 112-120, 14 refs, 8 figs. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 120, abstract only.

David R. Criswell, Philip R. Harris, “An Alternative Solar Energy Source,” Earth Space Review, vol 2, no 2, 1993. Also, J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 93-97, 3 refs, 1 table.

Henry P. Dart, III (Tucson, AZ), “Do Photons Lose Energy Spontaneously in the Form of Small Massive Particles?” Page5of 25

J. New Energy, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1997, pp 83-85, 3 refs., Letter to Editor.

John Dash, Sylvie Miguet (Portland St. Univ., OR), "Microanalysis of Pd Cathodes after Electrolysis in Aqueous Acids," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 23-27, 3 refs, 5 figs. Proc. 1st. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, Texas A&M Univ., June 19, 1995. (NEN July 1995)

J. Dash, R. Kopecek, S. Miguet (Phys. Dept., Portland St. Univ., Or), “Excess Heat and Unexpected Elements from Aqueous Electrolysis with Titanium and Palladium Cathodes,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97368. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 127, abstract only.

A. De Ninno, A. La Barbera, V. Biolante (ENEA/ERG/FUS/Div. Tecnol. Special, Rome, Italy), “Deformations Induced by High Loading Ratios in Palladium-Deuterium Compounds,” J. Alloys Compd., vol 253-254, pp 181-184 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 123, abstract only.

Dr. Myron W. Evans (Dir. AIAS), Letter to Editor, “Introduction and Invitation,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 172-173.

A. Fabrikant, M. Meyerovich (Ukrainian Intl. Acad. Original Ideas, Odessa), “Some Results of Experimental Investigations in Low-Temperature Metals Transmutation,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 56-60, 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 table. Proc. 1st. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, 1996, Texas A&M.

Thomas Z. Fahidy (Dept. Chem. Engineering, Univ. Waterloo, Canada), Roman E. Sioda (Inst. Industrial Organic Chem., Poland), “A Model-Based Analysis of HFS-Induced Heat Transport in Certain Metals,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 24-29, 17 refs, 4 tables.

C. Ferrari, F. Papucci, F. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, E. Tombari (IFAM/CNR, Italy), “A Calorimeter for the Electrolytic Cell and Other Open Systems,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., D, vol 18D, no 11, 1996, pp 1333-1346 (Eng.), Editrice Compositori. Chem. Abs., vol 126, no 16, 1997. (NEN Feb 1998) J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 126, abstract only.

John C. Fisher (Carpinteria, CA), “Liquid-Drop Model for Extremely Neutron Rich Nuclei,” Fusion Tech., vol 34, no 1, Aug. 1998, pp 66-75, 11 refs, 2 figs, 5 tables. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, p 94, abstract only.

Hal Fox (editor), “Cold Fusion and the Coulomb Barrier,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 23-26, 10 refs, 2 figs.

Hal Fox (editor), “The Developing Technology of Transmutation,” Editorial, J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pg 1. Proc. 2nd Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, Collage Station, TX, 1996.

Hal Fox, R.W. Bass, S.X. Jin (FIC, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), “Plasma-Injected Transmutation,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 222-230, 23 refs, 4 figs. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, TX, 1996.

Hal Fox (FIC, UT), Patrick G. Bailey (INE, Los Altos, CA), “Possible New Applications of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97231. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, p 127.

Hal Fox (FIC, UT), Patrick Bailey (INE, Los Altos, CA), “High-Density Charge Clusters and Energy Conversion Results,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97230. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, abstract only, p 127.

Hal Fox, Shang-Xian Jin (Trenergy, Inc., UT), “Operating the LENT-1 Transmutation Reactor: A Preliminary Report,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 110-118, 4 refs, 4 figs.

Hal Fox (Editor), “Rapid Developments Require Rapid Responses,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, Page6of 25

pp 2-3.

Hal Fox (President, Trenergy, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), “Do Thorium Daughter Products Explain LENT-1

Experiments?” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 20-21, 1 table.

Hal Fox, Robert Bass (Fusion Info. Ctr., Salt Lake City, UT), “Cold Versus Hot Fusion Deuterium Branching Ratios,” IEEE/NPSS Symp. Fusion Eng., 16th (vol 2), pp 1622-1625 (English) 1995; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 128-129, abstract only.

Hal Fox (Trenergy, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), “New-Energy Anomalies,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug , 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 47-50, 15 refs, 1 fig.

Hal Fox (Trenergy, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), “Gravity Waves & Torsion Fields: Faster Than Light?” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 51-55, 13 refs, 1 fig.

Hal Fox, Shang Xian Jin (Trenergy, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), “Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and High-Density Charge Clusters,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 56-67, 16 refs, 9 figs, 3 tables.

Hal Fox, Bill Ramsay (Trenergy, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), “The Superluminal Velocity of Gravity Waves,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 68-70, 9 refs.

Hal Fox (Editor), “Is Knowledge Power?” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 3-4.

Hal Fox (Editor, J New Energy, Salt Lake City, UT), “Measuring Superluminal Velocity,” presented at SWARM

meeting April 1999, Santa Fe, NM. J New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 50-53, 7 refs.

F. Frisone, “Study of the Probability of Interaction Between the Plasmons of Metals and Deuterons,” Nuovo Cimento, 18D (1996), 1279. Also, Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 8. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Fall 1997, p 120, abstract only.

Mitsutane Fujita, Misako Utsumi, Tetsuji Noda (Nat. Res. Inst. Metals, Ibaraki, Japan), “Retrieval System of Nuclear Data for Transmutation of Nuclear Materials,” JAERI-Conf., 97-004 (Proc. of the First Internet Symp. on Nucl. Data, 1996), 208-217 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 131, abstract only.

A.M. Gabovich (Inst. Phys., Nat. Acad. Sci., Kiev, Ukraine), “Possibility of Cold Fusion in Palladium Deuterides: Screening Effects and Connection to Superconducting Properties,” Philos. Mag. B, vol 76(10, 1997, pp 107-118. (English); J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 123, abstract only.

Peter A. Gibas, Friedrich Greilinger, Jean-M. Lehner, Werner Rusterholz (RQF Inst., Switzerland), “Free Energy by Space Quanta Manipulation (RQM),” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97145. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 127-128, abstract only.

Michael G. Gilman (Lowe, Price, LeBlanc and Becker, Alexandria, VI), “Licensing Patents and Technology by the Developer of the Technology,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97190. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 128, abstract only.

Vladimir B. Ginzburg (Pittsburgh, PA), “Nuclear Implosion,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 28-42, 8 refs, 7 figs, 9 tables.

Roy E. Graham (Annapolis, MD), “What If They Were Correct?” Proceedings INE’98 Symposium for New Energy, Aug 14-15, 1998, Salt Lake City, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 71-79.

Peter Graneau (Ctr. Electromagnetics Res., NE Univ., Boston, MA), “Extracting Intermolecular Bond Energy from Page7of 25

Water,” Infinite Energy, nos 13-14, Mar-Jun 1997, pp 92-95, 13 refs, 4 figs. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 120-121, abstract only.

Toby Grotz, Timothy A. Binder, Ronald J. Kovac (Univ. Sci. & Phil.), "Experimental Examination of Russell's Theory of Transmutation," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1995, pp 104-110, 15 refs, 5 figs. Proc. Low-Energy Transmutation Conf., Texas A&M Univ., June 19, 1995. (NEN July 1995)

Toby Grotz (Wireless Engineering, Inc., Craig, CO), "Investigation of Reports of the Synthesis of Iron via Arc Discharge through Carbon Compounds," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 106-110, 10 refs, 3 figs, 1 table. (NEN Oct 1996)

Toby Grotz, Don Rapp (Craig, CO), “Preliminary Results of Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction Spectroscopy of Carbon-Carbon Arc Experiments,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 80-83, 4 refs, 2 figs.

Peter Hagelstein (MIT, Cambridge, USA), “New Lattice-Nucleus Coupling Mechanisms and Possible Energy Production,” IEEE/NPSS Symp. Fusion Eng., 16th (vol 2), pp 1617-1621 (English) 1995; , vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 125, abstract only.

Bernard Haisch, Alfonso Reuda, Hal Puthoff, “Physics of the Zero-Point Field: Implications for Inertia, Gravitation and Mass,” Speculations in Science and Technol., vol 20, 1997, pp 99-114, 69 refs. (NEN Sept. 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 121, abstract only.

Josef Hasslberger (Rampa Brancaleone, Rome, Italy), “Action at a Distance a Question of Viewpoint,” J New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 43-46, 7 refs.

Taylor Hartley, "The Future of Rocketry," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 137-140, 5 refs. (NEN Aug 1996)

Robert L. Henderson (Sun City, AZ), “The Fundamental Fault with Special Relativity,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1997, pp 77-81,.

Robert L. Henderson (Sun City, AZ), “Discourse on the Relativity of Simultaneity,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 106-109.

Robert L. Henderson (Sun City, AZ), “The Truth about Time-Dilation Experiments,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 108-111.

F.P. Hessberger, S. Hofmann, V. Ninov, P. Armbruster, H. Folger, A. Lavrentev, M.E. Leino, G. Munzenberg, A.G. Popeko, S. Saro, Ch. Stodel, A.N. Yeremin (Gesellschaft fur Schwerionen-forschung mbH, Darmstadt, Germany), “GSI Experiments on the Synthesis of Superheavy Elements,” AIP Conf. Proc., 425 (Tours Symp. Nucl. Phys. III, 1997) 3-15 (English) 1998. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, abstract only, pp 178-179.

Heinrich Hora (Dept. Theor. Phys., Univ. N.S.W., Sydney, Australia), “Magic Numbers and Low Energy Nuclear Transmutation by Protons in Host Metals,” Czech. J. Phys., 48(3), pp 321-328 (English) 1998. Proc. INE”98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, abstract only, p 179.

Howard Hull, "Potential in Space of Compound Curvature," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 95-105, 9 refs, 3 figs. (NEN Aug 1996)

James J. Hurtak (AFFS Corp., Los Gatos, CA), Patrick Bailey (INE, Los Altos, CA), “Cold Fusion Research: Models and Potential Benefits,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97163. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only), J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 128-129.

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James J. Hurtak (AFFS Corp., Los Gatos, CA), Patrick Bailey (INE, Los Altos, CA), “RQM Technologies: Summary and Status,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97175. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 129, abstract only.

James J. Hurtak (AFFS Corp. Los Gatos, CA), Patrick G. Bailey (Inst. New Energy, Los Gatos, CA), “Cold Fusion Research: Models and Potential Benefits,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 5-17, 31 refs.

James J. Hurtak (AFFS Corp., Los Gatos, CA), Patrick Bailey (INE President, Los Altos, CA), “Cold Fusion Research: Models and Potential Benefits,” J. New Energy , vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 6-18, 49 refs.

Shiuji Inomata (President Japan Psychotronics Inst., Japan), “Science of Consciousness and New Scientific World-View: We are in the Midst of the Second Copernican Revolution,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 101-107, 2 figs, 1 table.

Shiuji Inomata (President Japan Psychotronics Inst., Japan), “Complexified EM, Gravity, and Energy,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 59-67, 12 refs, 1 fig, 1 table.

Shigeru Isagawa, Yukio Kanda, Takenori Suzuki (High Energy Accel. Res. Org. (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan), “Present Status of Cold Fusion Experiment at KEK,” Int. J. Soc. Mater. Eng. Resour., 6(1), pp 60-67 (English) 1998. Proc. INE”98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, abstract only, p 179.

Ben Iverson (ITAM Tigard, OR), “Foundations of Science, (Quantum Arithmetic,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97096. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 129.

Xing-Liu Jiang, Lijun Han (Dept. Appl. Math. & Phys., Beijing Univ. Appl. Math. & Phys., Beijing Univ. Aeronautics and Astronautics, P.R. China), “Non-Equilibrium Conditions of Electrolysis and Abnormal Nuclear Phenomena,” Yanzihe Wuli Pinglun, vol 14(2), pp 11-113 (Chinese) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 127, abstract only.

Xing-Liu Jiang (Beijing Univ. Aeronautics & Astronautics, Dept. Phys., China), Alexander A. Berezin (Dept. Engr. Phys., McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada), “Channeling Effects and Nuclear Reactions in Electrochemical Systems,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 84-92, 37 refs, 3 figs.

Xing-Liu Jiang, Li-Jun Han (Dept. Matls. Sci., Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics & Astonautics, China), Jin-Zhi Lei (Sci. School, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics & Astronautics, China), “Dynamic Casimir Effect in an Electrochemical System,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 47-49, 10 refs, 1 fig.

Shang-Xian Jin, Hal Fox (FIC, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), "Possible Palladium-Related Nuclear Reactions," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 192-209, 3 refs. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, College Station, TX, 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

Shang-Xian Jin, Hal Fox (FIC, Inc., UT), “Characteristics of High-Density Charge Clusters: A Theoretical Model,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 5-21, 16 refs, 2 figs.

Gary L. Johnson (Johnson Energy Corp., Manhattan, KS), “Requirements for Bringing a New-Energy Generator to Market,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 93-105, 4 refs.

A.B. Karabut, Y.R. Kucherov, I.B. Savvatimova (Sci. Ind. Assoc. “Luck”, Russian Federation), “Possible Nuclear Reactions Mechanisms at Glow Discharge in Deuterium,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 20-22, 2 refs.

T.C. Kaushik, L.V. Kulkarni, A. Shyam, M. Srinivasan (Neutron Phys., Div., BARC, Bombay, India), “Experimental Page9of 25

Investigations on Neutron Emissions from Projectile-Impacted Deuterated Solids,” Phys. Lett. A., vol 232(5), pp 384-390 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 123, abstract only.

Kenya Kawataba, Nobuyuki Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki Kamiya (Furukawa Elec. Co., Ltd., Yokohama, Japan), “Anti- Gravity Heat Pipe,” Heat Pipe Technol.,: Theory, Appl. Prospects, Proc. Int. Heat Pipe Symp., 5th, pp 168-175. Proc. INE”98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, abstract only, pp 179.

O.D. Kazachkovskii, “A Possible Mechanism for Cold Fusion,” At. Energy, vol 81 (1996); [Transl. from Atomn. Energ., vol 81, no 4, (1996), p 309]. Also, Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 8. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 121, abstract only.

P.P. Khramtsov, O.G. Martynenko, “Peculiar Processes of Cathodic Scattering by Electrical Discharge through the Saturated Heavy Water-Vapor Interface,” Inzh. Fis. zh., vol 69, no 5 (1996), p 721 [in Russian]; Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 9; J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 121, abstract only.

P.P. Khramtsov. O.G. Martynenko (Inst. Teplo- Massoovmena im. Lykova, Belarus), “Cathodic Dispersion ?During Electric Discharge Through Interface Between Heavy Water-Saturated Vapor,” Inzh.-Fix. Zh, vol 69(5), pp 721-725 (Russian); J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 124, abstract only.

Bernhard Kienzler, Juergen Roemer (Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik, Gorschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Germany), “Comparison Between transmutation and Direct Disposal Strategies: Chemical Aspects,” Tagungsber.- Jahrestag. Kerntech., pp 367-369 (English) 1996; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 131, abstract only.

V.I. Kichigin, A.V. Klyuev, S.A. Kurapov, V.F. Panov, G.V. Khaldeev, T.F. Borisova (Perm Univ., Russia), "Torsional Fields and Electrochemical Processes at Metal-Electrolyte Interface," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 27-31, 8 refs, 3 figs. (NEN Aug 1996)

Yeong E. Kim, Alexander L. Zubarev (Dept. Phys., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN), "Uncertainties of Conventional Theories and New Improved Formulations of Low-Energy Nuclear Fusion Reactions," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, 1996, pp 61-62, 3 refs. Proc. 1st Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, Texas A&M Univ., 1995. (NEN July 1995)

Yeong E. Kim, Alexander L. Zubarev (Dept. Phys., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN), "Nuclear Physics Mechanism for Gamov Factor Cancellation in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 145-154, 55 refs. Proc. 2nd Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Conf., 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

Moray B. King (Provo, UT), “Charge Clusters: The Basis of Zero-Point Energy Inventions,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 18-31, 72 refs, 6 figs.

Moray B. King (Provo, UT), “Vortex Filaments, Torsion Fields and the Zero-Point Energy,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. for New Energy, Aug, 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 106-116, 53 refs, 1 fig.

K. Konashi, T. Shibayama, M. Teshigawara, H. Kurishita, H. Kayano (Oarai Branch, Inst. Mats. Res., Tohoku Univ., Japan), “Production of Helium in Iron by Proton Irradiation,” Sci. Rep. Res. Inst., Tohoku Univ., Ser. A, vol 45(1), pp 111-114 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 130, abstract only.

X.Z. Li, L.C. Kong, X.L. Han, S.X. Zheng, H.F. Huang, Y.J. Yan, Q.L. Wu, Y. Deng. S.L. Lei, C.X. Li (Dept. Phys., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China), “Nuclear Products and Transmutation in a Gas-Loading D/Pd System,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 20-23, 5 refs, 6 figs.

R. Kopecek, John Dash (Phys. Dept., Portland State Univ., OR), “Excess Heat and Unexpected Elements from Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Titanium Cathodes,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 46-53, 2 refs, 8 figs. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, Collage Station, TX, 1996.

Page 10 of 25

Hideo Kozima, Masahiro Nomura, Katsuhiko Hiroe, Masayuki Ohta (Dept. Phys., Fac. /Sci. Shizuoka Univ., Japan), “Nuclear Transmutation in Cold Fusion Experiments,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 21-25, 8 refs, 1 fig. Also, Proc. ICCF-6, Oct. 1996, Hokkaido, Japan. Cold Fusion, issue 20, Dec 1996, pp 16-20, 8 refs, 1 fig. (NEN Feb 1997)

Hideo Kozima, Kaori Khaki, Masayuki Ohta (Shizuoka Univ.), “The Physics of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon,” Elemental Energy, issue 22 (1997), pp 58-78, 52 refs. (NEN Oct 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 123, abstract only.

Hideo Kozima (Dept. Phys., Fac. Sci., Shizuoka Univ., Japan), “The TNCF Model - A Phenomenological Model for the Cold Fusion Phenomenon,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 43-47, 22 refs.

H. Kozima, K. Khaki, T. Yoneyama, S. Watanabe, M. Koike, “Theoretical Verification of the Trapped Neutron Catalyzed Model of Deuteron Fusion in Pd/D and Ti/D Systems,” Repts. Fac. Sci. Shizuoka univ., vol 31 (1997), p 1; Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 9. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 121, abstract only.

H. Kozima, S. Watanabe, K. Hiroe, M. Nomura, M. Ohta, “Analysis of Cold Fusion Experiments Generating Excess Heat, Tritium and Helium,” J. Electrolanal. Chem., vol 425 (1997). p 173; Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 9. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 122, abstract only.

H. Kozima, K. Khaki (Shizuoka Univ., Japan), “TNCF Analysis of Excess Heat in Ni/H/K Systems, Elemental Energy, (‘Cold Fusion’), no 22, pp 40-44, 20 refs. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 122, abstract only.

H. Kozima (Shizuoka Univ.), “On the Reduced Radioactivity of Tritium Absorbed by Titanium,” Elemental Energy (“Cold Fusion”), no 22, pp 45-48, 15 refs. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 122, abstract only.

H. Kozima, M. Ohta, M. Nomura, K. Hiroe (Shizuoka Univ.), “Analysis of Excess Heat Generation in a Proton Conductor,” Elemental Energy (“Cold Fusion”), no 22, pp 49-53, 10 refs. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 122, abstract only.

H. Kozima, M. Ohta, M. Nomura, K. Hiroe (Shizuoka Univ.), “Explanation of Experimental Data of X-Ray, Heat Excess and 4He in a PdDx / Li System,” Elemental Energy (“Cold Fusion”), no 22, pp 54-57, 12 refs. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 122-123, abstract only.

Hideo Kozima, Kaori Khaki, Tohry Yoneyama, Seiji Watanabe, Masahiro Koike (Dept. Phys., Fax. of Sci., Shizuoka Univ., Japan), “Theoretical Verification of the Trapped Neutron Catalyzed Model of Deuteron Fusion in Pd/D and Ti/D Systems,” Rep. Fac. Sci., Shizuoka Univ., vol 31, pp 1-12 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 124, abstract only.

Hideo Kozima (Dept. Phys., Shizuoka Univ., Japan), “The Behavior of Neutrons in Crystals,” Cold Fusion, issue 18, pp 17-21 (English) 1996; J. New Energy vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 125, abstract only.

Hideo Kozima, Seiji Watanabe, Katsuhiko Hiroe, Masahiro Nomura, Masayuki Ohta (Dept. Phys., Fac. Sci., Shizuoka Univ., Japan), “Analysis of Cold Fusion Experiments Generating Excess Heat, Tritium, and Helium,” J. Electroanal. Chem., vol 425(1-2), pp 173-178 (English) 1997; J. New Energy News, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 128, abstract only.

Hideo Kozima, Masayuki Ohta, Masahiro Nomura, Katsuhiko Hiroe (Dept. Phys., Skizuoka Univ., Japan), “Another Evidence of Nuclear Transmutation in Cold Fusion Experiments,” Cold Fusion, issue 18, pp 12-16 (English) 1996; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 131, abstract only.

H. Kozima (Dept. Phys., Fax. Sci., Shizuoka Univ., Japan), “Cold Fusion Phenomenon (A Review),” to be pub. in International J. Soc. Mats. Engr. for Resources, vol 6, no 1, 1998, pp 68-77; J. New Energy, vol 2 nos 3/4, Winter

Page 11 of 25

1997, pp 134, abstract only.

Hideo Kozima, Koki Yoshimoto, Kaori Khaki (Dept. Phys., Fac. Sci.., Shizuoka Univ., Japan), “Nuclear Fission in the Cold Fusion Phenomenon: A Qualitative Explanation of Nuclear Transmutation as a Whole,” Elem. Energy (Cold Fusion), 24, pp 4-9, 1997. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, abstract only, p 179.

Hideo Kozima (Dept. Phys., Fac. Sci., Shizuoka Univ., Japan), “How the Cold Fusion Occurs (2),“ Rep. Fac. Sci., 32, p 1-43, 1998. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, abstract only, p 180.

Alexander B. Kukushkin, Valentin A. Rantsev-Kartinov, Arkady R. Terentiev (Inst. Nucl. Fusion, Rus. Research Ctr., Kurchatov Inst., Moscow), “Formation of a Spheromak-Like Magnetic Configuration by a Plasma Focus Self- Transformed Magnetic Field,” Fusion Technol., vol 32, no 1, Aug. 1997, pp 83-92, 17 refs, 7 figs. “A Short Review: A.B. Kukushikin’s Paper.” (NEN Oct 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 123, abstract only.

Wingate Lambertson, “Unemployment Gives One Time to Think,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 105- 106, Letter to Editor.

Wingate Lambertson, “Measurements and Results in the WIN Method,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 117-121, 1 table.

Vladimir N. Larin (Geol. Inst., Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow), "Rift Zones as an Inexhaustible Source of Hydrogen on Earth (New Perspectives of Ecologically Clean Energetics)," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 106- 107. (NEN Aug 1996)

Steve Lazarus, Chuck Bennett, Warren Cooley (USA), “The Connection Between the Particle and the Wave in the Zero Point Energy Field as Applied to Cold Fusion Energy,” Cold Fusion, 1996, 18, pp 26-29. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, abstract only, p 180.

D. Li (Joshou Dazue Xuebao), “Principle and Experimental Method for the Measurement of the Cold Fusion - Reaction Cross Section,” Ziran Kexueban, vol 17, no 3 (1996), p 65 (Chinese, Eng. ab.); Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 5. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 124, abstract only.

Xing-Zhong Li, et al. (Dept. Phys.,Tsinghua Univ., China), “Excess Heat Measurement in Gas-Loading D/PD System,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 34-39, 11 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables.

Xing-Zhong Li (Dept. Phys., Tsinghua Univ., China), “A New Approach Towards Fusion Energy with No Strong Nuclear Radiation,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Fall 1996, pp 44-54, 10 refs, 1 fig.

G.H. Lin, J.O'M. Bockris (Dept. Chem., Texas A&M Univ.), "Anomalous Radioactivity and Unexpected Elements as a Result of Heating Inorganic Mixtures," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 100-105, 12 refs, 1 fig, 1 table. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, College Station, TX, 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

R. Lu, “X-Ray Emission and Cold Nuclear Fusion in Glow Discharge Process of a Kind of Gas,” Trends Nucl. Phys., vol 12, no 1 (1995), p 44 (in Chinese, Eng. ab..); Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 15. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 124, abstract only.

Runbao Lu (Beijing Inst., App. Phys. & Computational Math., Peop. Rep. China), “Analysis of X-Ray and (-Ray production Mechanism Under the Condition of Discharge with D2 Gas,” Yuanzihe Wuli Pinglun, 14(2), pp 114-117, 1997. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 180, abstract only.

Runbao Lu (Beijing Inst., App. Phys. & Computational Math., Peop. Rep. China), “Electron-Ion Bound State and its Initiation of Nuclear Fusion,” Qiangjiguang Yu Lizishu, 10(2), 1998, pp 315-320. Proc. INE’98 Symp., Aug 1998,

Page 12 of 25

UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 180, abstract only.

Stefan Marinov (Inst. Fundamental Phys., Graz, Austria), "Segner-Marinov Turbine as a Perpetual Motion

Machine," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 130-132. (NEN Aug 1996)

Stefan Marinov, “Generation of Free Momentum and Free Energy by the Help of Centrifugal Forces,” J. New

Energy, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1997, pp 44-59, 12 refs, 10 figs.

Dennis McCarthy (Norfolk, MA), “The Classsical/Newtonian Derivation of Lorentzian Equations for Sound and

Other Media Proscesses,” J New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 54-62, 5 refs.

Guy McCarthy (Jefferson, MD), “Geometric Energy Fields,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, UT, J.

New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 122-127, 8 refs, 6 figs.

Takaaki Matsumoto (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Hokkaido Univ., Japan), “Experiments of Underwater Spark Discharges

with Pinched Electrodes,” J. New Energy, pp 79-92, 9 refs, 13 figs.

A. Michrowski (President, P.A.C.E., Inc., Canada), "Advanced Transmutation Precesses and Their Application for the Decontamination of Radioactive Nuclear Wastes," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 122-130, 30 refs, 2 figs. Proc. 2nd Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Conf., 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

M.H. Miles, K.B. Johnson (Chem. & Matls, Branch, Res. & Technol. Div., Naval Air Warfare Ctr. Weapons Div., China Lake, CA), "Electrochemical Insertion of Hydrogen into Metals and Alloys," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 32-36, 3 refs, 1 fig, 3 tables. (NEN Aug 1996)

Melvin H. Miles, Kendall B. Johnson (Chem. & Materials Branch, R& Technol. Group Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Div., China Lake, CA), M. Ashraf Iman (Physical Metallurgy Branch, Materials Sci., & Technol. Div., Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C.), “Anomalous Heat and Helium Production Using Palladium-Boron Alloys in Heavy Water,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97538. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 129, abstract only.

George H. Miley (Fusion Studies Lab., Univ. IL-Urbana), James A. Patterson (CETI., Dallas, TX), "Nuclear Transmutation in Thin-Film Nickel Coatings Undergoing Electrolysis," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 5-30, 29 refs, 11 figs, 3 tables. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reaction, Texas, 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

G.H. Miley, G. Name, M.J. Williams, (Fusion Studies Lab., Univ. IL), J.A. Patterson, J. Nix, D. Cravens (CETI, Dallas, TX), H. Hora (Univ. New South Wales, Australia), “Quantitative Observation of Transmutation Products Occurring in Thin-Film Coated Micorspheres during Electrolysis,” pre-print from ICCF-6 Proc.; Cold Fusion, issue 20, Dec. 1996, pp 71-84, 14 refs, 5 figs, 3 tables. (NEN Feb 1997); J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, p 107, abstract only.

G.H. Miley (Dept. Nuclear Engr., Univ. IL), “Possible Evidence of Anomalous Energy Effects in H/D-Loaded Solids - Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRS),” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 6-13, 17 refs, 6 figs.

William C. Mitchell, “Big Band Theory Under Fire,” Phys. Essays, vol 10, no 2, 1997, pp 370-379, 62 refs. (NEN Nov 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2 nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 134, abstract only.

T. Mizuno (Hokkaido Univ., Japan), "Analysis of Elements for Solid State Electrolyte in Deuterium Atmosphere during Applied Field," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 79-86, 5 refs, 6 figs, 1 table. Proc. 1st Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, 1995, Texas A&M Univ. (NEN July 1995)

T. Mizuno, T. Ohmori (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), M. Enyo (Hokodate Natl. Col. Technol., Japan), "Anomalous Isotopic Distribution in Palladium Cathode After Electrolysis," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 37-44, 17 refs, 5 figs. (NEN Aug 1996)

Page 13 of 25

T. Mizuno (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Hokkaido Univ., Japan), Takayoshi Ohmori (Catalysis Res. Ctr.., Hokkaido Univ., Japan), Michio Enyo (Hakodate Nat. Col. Tech., Japan), "Isotopic Changes of the Reaction Products Induced by Cathodic Electrolysis in Pd," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 31-45, 18 refs, 11 figs. Proc. 2nd Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

T. Mizuno, T. Akimoto, K. Kurokawa, M. Kitaichi, K. Inoda, K. Azumi, S. Simokawa, (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Fac. Engr., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), T. Ohmori (Catalysis Res. Center, Hokkaido Univ., Japan), “Changes in Isotopic Distribution of the Elements on Palladium Cathode after Electrolyzed in D2O Solution,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97198. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 129 abstract only.

T. Mizuno, K. Inoda, T. Akimoto, K. Azumi, M. Kitaichi, K. Jurokawa, T. Ohmori, M. Enyo, ‘Anomalous Gamma Peak Evolution from SrCe Solid State Electrolyte Charged in D2 Gas,” J. Hydrogen Energy, vol 22 (1997), p 23; Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 15. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 124, abstract only.

Tadahiko Mizuno, Koich Inoda, Tadashi Akimoto, Kazuhisa Azumi, Masatoshi Kitaichi, Kazuya Kurokawa, Tadayoshi Ohmoir, Michio Enyo (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), “Anomalous ( Peak Evolution from SrCe Solid State Electrolyte Charged in D2 Gas,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol 22(1), pp 23-25 (English)1997. J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 126, abstract only.

Tadahiko Mizuno, Tadashi Akimoto (Dept. Quantum Energy, Fac. Engr., Hokkaido Univ., Japan), Tadayoshi Ohmori (Catalysis Res. Cntr. Hokkaido Univ., Japan), “Neutron and Heat generation Induced by Electric Discharge,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 33-45, 17 refs, 7 figs.

P. Moller, J.R. Nix, P. Armbruster, S. Hofmann, G. Munzenberg (Theor. Div., Los Alamos Natl. Lab., NM), “Single- Particle Enhancement of Heavy-Element Production,” Z. Phys. A: Hadrons Nucl., 359(3) 1997, pp 251-255. Proc. INE’98 Symp., Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, pp 180, abstract only.

Peter Moller, J. Rayford Nix (P. Moller Sci. Compg. & Graphics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM), “Stability and Production of Superheavy Nuclei,” AIP Conf. Proc., 425 (Tours Symp. Nucl. Phys. III, 1997) pp 75-84. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, pp 181, abstract only.

Christian Monstein (Switzerland), “Electromagnetic Induction Without Magnetic Field,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 81-85, 7 refs, 4 figs, 1 table.

Roberto Monti (Burns Dev. Ltd., Canada), "Variations of the Half-Lives of Radioactive Elements and Associated Cold Fusion and Cold Fission Reactions," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 119-125, 5 refs,. Proc. 1st Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, 1995, Texas A&M Univ. (NEN July 1995)

Roberto Monti, "Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions: Experimental Evidence for the Alpha Extended Model of the Atom," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 131-143, 18 refs, 4 figs. Proc. 2nd Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, Texas, 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

D. Moon, “Addendum to Mechanisms of a Disobedient Science,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 116-129, 19 refs, 7 figs.

David Moon (Minneapolis, MN), “Carbon-14 Found in the YUSMAR Hydromachine,” Cold Fusion, 1996, 18, pp 53-54. Proc. INE’98 Symp., Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 181, abstract only.

David L. Morgan, Jr., John L. Perkins, Scott W. Haney (Lawrence Livermore Nat’l. Lab., Livermore, CA), “Anti- Proton-Catalyzed Fusion,” Hyperfine Interact., 1996, 101/102 (Muon Catalyzed Fusion), pp 503-509 (Eng.), Baltzer. Chem. Abs., vol 126, no 11, 1997. (NEN Feb 1998) J. New Energy, vol 2 nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 134, abstract only.

Harvey Morgan (Deming, NM), “Force is Force,” also “Electrical 1/f Noise,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring Page 14 of 25

1998, Letter to Editor, pp 97-98.

David Nagel (Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C.), “Cold Fusion Experiments, Theory and Management at the NR Lab.,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, p 88, abstract only. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, College Station, TX, 1996.

K. Nakamura (Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Kinki Univ., Japan), Y. Kishimoto (Fac. Sci. & Technol., Kinki Univ., Japan), I. Ogura (Former Prof. of Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Kinki Univ., Japan), “Element Conversion by Arcing in Aqueous Solution,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 53-55, 3 refs, 2 figs, 2 tables.

K. Nakamura, T. Kawase, I. Ogura, “Possibility of Element Transmutation by Arcing Water,” Kinki Daigaku Genshiuoku Kenkyusho Nenpo, vol 33 (1996), p 25 (Japanese, Engl. ab..); Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 15. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 124, abstract only.

Katsuichi Nakamura, Takashi Kawase, Isao Ogura (Kinki Univ., Atm. Energy Res. Inst., Osaka, Japan), “Possibility of Element Transmutation by Arcing in Water,” Genshiryoku Kenkyusho Nenpo, vol 33, pp 25-31 (Japanese) 1996; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 124, abstract only.

A.A. Nassikas (Larissa Ed. inst. of Technol., Greece), “The Hypothesis and the Equations of the Unified Matter Field,” Infinite Energy, nos 13-14, Mar-Jun. 1997, pp 120-124, 17 refs, 1 fig. Originally published in Proc. Int. Conf. on New Ideas in Natural Sci., St.-Petersburg Phys. Soc., 1996. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 123- 124, abstract only.

Vincenzo Nassisi (Dept. Phys., Univ. Lecce, Italy), “Incandescent PD and Anomalous Distribution of Elements in Deuterated Samples Processed by an Excimer Laser,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 14-19, 19 refs, 10 figs.

Willard D. Nelson (retired, Olympia, WA), “ New Astronomical Data Finds Support in the Nuclear Cluster Model,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 86-92, 18 refs, 1 fig, 2 tables.

A.G. Popeko (Flerov Lab. Nucl. Reactions, JINR, Dubna, Russia), “Subbarrier Cold Fusion Reactions Leading to Superheavy Elements,” Nuovo Ciomento Soc. Ital. Fis., A, 1997, 110A(9-10), pp 1137-1142. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, pp 181, abstract only.

John Philip Nicholson (Univ. Strathclyde, Dept. Phys. & Applied Phys., Glasgow, UK), “A Search for Particle Emission from a Gas-Loaded Deuterium-Palladium System in the Alpha-Beta Phase,” Fusion Technol., vol 30, no 3, Dec 1996, pp 383-385, 25 refs, 1 fig. (NEN Jan 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 124, abstract only.

Reiko Notoya (Catalysis Res. Ctr. Hokkaido Univ., Japan), "Low Temperature Nuclear Change of Alkali Metallic Ions Caused by Electrolysis," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 39-45, 12 refs, 4 figs. Proc. 1st. Low- Energy Transmutation Conf.1995, Texas A&M Univ. (NEN July 1995)

Reiko Notoya, Toshiyuki Ohnishi, Yohichi Noya (Catalysis Res. Ctr., Hokkaido Univ., Japan), “Nuclear Reaction Caused by Electrolysis in Light and Heavy Water Solutions,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 40-43, 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tables.

R. Notoya (Hokkaido Univ., Japan), “Cold Fusion Arising from Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on Active Metals in Alkali Metallic Ionic Solutions,” Environmental Res. Forum, vols. 1-2 (1996), pp 127-140, 13 refs, 7 figs, 2 tables. Also, J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, p 107, abstract only.

R. Notoya (Catalysis Res. Ctr., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), “Cold Fusion Arising from Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on Active Metals in Alkali Metallic Ions Solutions,” Environ., Res. Forum, 1-2 (Chem. & Energy), pp 127- 139 (English) 1996; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 128, abstract only.

Page 15 of 25

Hung-Kuk Oh (School of Med. & Industrial Engr., Ajou Univ., S. Korea), “Three-Dimensional Crystallizing B- Bondings, B-Far Infrared Rays and N-Machine,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 86-93, 6 refs, 14 figs, 1 table.

T. Ohmori (Catalysis Res. Ctr., Hokkaido Univ., Japan), M. Enyo (Hokodate Nat. Col. Technol., Japan), "Iron Formation in Gold and Palladium Cathodes," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 15-19, 3 refs, 8 figs, 1 table. Proc. 1st. Low-Energy Transmutation Conf.1995, Texas A&M Univ. (NEN July 1995)

T. Ohmori (Catalysis Res. Ctr., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), T. Mizuno (Fac. Engr., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), M. Enyo (Hakodate Nat. Col. Tech., Japan), "Isotopic Distributions of Heavy Metal Elements Produced During the Light Water Electrolysis on Gold Electrode," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 90-99, 8 refs, 9 figs. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, College Station, TX, 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

T. Ohmori (Catalysis Res. Center, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), T. Mizuno (Fac. Engr., Hokkaido Univ., Japan), M. Enyo (Hakodate Natl. Coll. Technol., Hakodate, Japan), “Nuclear Transmutation Induced by Light Water Electrolysis with Gold Electrodes,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97373. (NEN Aug. 1997, Ab. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 130, abstract only.

T. Ohmori, T. Mizuno, H. Minagawa, M. Enyo (Catalysis Res. Ctr., Hokkaido Univ. Sapporo, Japan), “Low Temperature Nuclear Transmutation Forming Iron On/In Gold Electrode During Light Water Electrolysis,” J. Hydrogen Energy, vol 22(5), pp 459-463 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 131, abstract only.

Makoto Okamoto (Res. Inst. Nucl. Reactor, Tokyo inst. Technol., Japan), “Normal Temperature Condensation Phase Nuclear Reaction,” Hoshasen Kagaku (Tokyo), vol 39, no 9 (1996), pp 325-330, 7 refs, in Japanese; Chem. Abs., vol 126, no 4 (1997). (NEN Oct 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 127, abstract only.

M. G. Olayo, G.J. Cruz, L. Balderas, L. Melendez, A. Chavez, R. Valencia, E. Chavez, A. Flores, R. Lopez (Dept. de Fisica, Inst. Nacional de Invewtigaciones Nucleares, D.F. Mexico), “Absorption of Deuterium in Titanium Plates Induced by Electric Discharges,” International J. Hydrogen Energy, vol 23, 1998, pp 885-890. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 94-95, abstract only.

R.A. Oriani (Univ. Minnesota, Dept. Chem. Engr. & Matls. Sci., MN), “Anomalous Heavy Atomic Masses Produced by Electrolysis,” Fusion Tech., vol 34, no 1, Aug 1998, pp 76-80, 11 refs, 3 figs, 3 tables. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, p 94, abstract only.

Kenichiro Ota, Taichi Kobayashi (Dept Energy Eng., Yokohama Natl. Univ., Japan), “Cold Fusion and Calorimetry,” Netsu Sokutei, vol 24(3), 1997, pp 138-145 (Japanese); J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 123, abstract only.

Phillip Ozdemir (Smyrna, NY), "The Energy Release Mechanism of Newly-Formed Alpha Bosons in a Quantum Crystal Lattice," (or "Why There Are No 23.8 MeV Gamma Rays from D + D = 4He Spin-Coherent Cold Fusion Reactions," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 45-53, 10 refs, 1 fig. (NEN Aug 1996)

Vyacheslav F. Panov, Vladimir I. Kichigin, Gennady V. Khaldeev, Andrei V. Kluev, Boris V. Testov, Tatyana a. Yushlova, Vladimir V. Yushkov (Perm Univ., Russia), “Torsion Fields and Experiments,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 29-39, 27 refs, 2 figs.

Panos T. Pappas (Dept. Phys., Tech. Inst. Piraeus, Greece), “Electrically Induced Nuclear Fusion in the Living Cell,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, 1998, pp 5-9, 9 refs. Proceedings ICCF-7, Vancouver, Canada, April 1998, pp 460-465, 7 refs.

Thomas O. Passell (EPRI, Palo Alto, CA), "Overview of EPRI Program in Deuterided Metals," NEN, vol 3, no 4, July 1995, pg 1. Also, J. New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 9-14, 11 figs.

Page 16 of 25

W. Peschka, “Kinetobaric Effect as Possible Basis for a New Propulsion Principle,” translated from German by Donald Reed from Raumfahrt-Forschung, Feb. 1974. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 77-85, 6 figs.

Dr. Hans J. Petermann, “Energy from Trash, Not by Burning It,” Proceedings INE’98 Symposium, Aug 14-15, 1998, Salt Lake City, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 128-129.

Yubo Piao, Xuezhi Wang (Inst. Nucl. Res., Lanzhou Univ., P.R. China), “Progress in Study of Anomalous Nuclear Reactions in Solids,” Hewuli Dongtai, vol 13(3), pp 34-36, pp 18 (Chinese) 1996; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 126, abstract only.

Igor V. Pomerantsev (Perm Univ., Russia), “The Boltzmann Distribution,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 101-105, 4 refs, 2 figs. Editor’s Choice

Igor V. Pomerantsev (Perm Univ., Russia), “New Model of Molecular Velocity Distribution,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 71-76, 2 refs, 2 figs.

H.E. Puthoff, Ph.D. (Inst. Adv. Studies at Austin, TX), “Can the Vacuum be Engineered for Spaceflight Applications,” Overview of Theory and Experiments,” NEN, vol 5, no 5, Sept. 1997, pp 6-7. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 124-125, abstract only.

Wayne Powell (Kalispell, MT), Letter, “Montana Home Brew Recipe,” Proceedings INE’98 Symposium for New Energy, Aug 14-15, 1998, Salt Lake City, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 174-177, 2 figs.

Guang S. Qiao, Xiu M. Han (Inst. Geology, Chinese Acad. Sci., Beijing, China), Ling C. Kong (Inst. Geology, State Seismological Bureau, China), Xing Z. Li (Dept. Phys., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China), “Nuclear Transmutation in a Gas-Loading H/PD System,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 48-52, 9 refs, 7 figs, 3 tables.

Georgiy S. Rabzi (Ukrainian Intl.. Acad. Original Ideas), "Mechanism of Low Temperature Transmutation," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, 1996, pp 55, 10- refs, 3 figs, 2 tables. Proc. 1st Low-Energy Transmutation Conf.1995, Texas A&M Univ. (NEN July 1995)

Georgiy S. Rabzi (Ukrainian Intl. Acad. Original Ideas, Southern Branch, Odessa), "Natural Cold Fission - Natural New Energy - Natural New Physics,"J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996. Pp 184-191, 13 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables. Proc. 2nd Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, Texas, 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

George Rabzy, “Mechanism of Interaction in Objects of the Universe,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 112-117, 7 refs, 3 figs.

Don Reed (Buffalo, NY), “Novel Electromagnetic Concepts and Implication for New Physics Paradigms and Energy Technologies,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1997, pp 69-73, 22 refs, 2 figs, 1 table.

Don Reed (Buffalo, NY), “Comments on the Zinsser-Device and Torsion Fields,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 54-58, 16 refs, 1 fig.

Don Reed (Buffalo, NY), “Excitation and Extraction of Vacuum Energy Via EM - Torsion Field Coupling - Theoretical Model,” Proceedings INE’98 Symposium for New Energy, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 130-140, 40 refs, 6 figs.

David E. Reisner, T. Danny Xiao, Peter R. Strutt (US Nanocorp, Inc., North Haven, CT), Alvin J. Salkind (UMDNJ- Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Bioengr. Div./Surgery Dept., Piscataway, NJ), “Nanostructured Materials for Energy Storage and Energy Conversion Devices,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97501. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abstract only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 130, abstract only.

Alfonso Reuda (Dept. Electrical Engr. & Dept. Phys., CA State Univ., Long Beach, CA), Bernhard Haisch (Solar Page 17 of 25

& Astrophysics Lab., Lockheed Martin, Palo Alto, CA & Max-Planck-Institut für Extra-Terrestrische Physik, Germany), “Inertia as Reaction of the Vacuum to Accelerated Motion,” Phys. Letters A, vol 240 (1998) pp 115-126. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, p 95, abstract only.

Waldry A. Rodrigues Jr. (Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao, Brazil), Jian-Yu Lu (Biodynamics Res. Unit, Dept. Physiology and Biophysics, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, mn0, “On the Existence of Undistorted Wabes (UPWs) of Arbitrary Speeds 0 # v < 4 in Nature,” Foundations of Physics, vol 27, no 3, 1997, pp 435-508, 86 refs, 12 figs, 1 table. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, p 95, abstract only.

Paul E. Rowe (Mashpee, MA), "Hydrogen Gas from Vacuum, Parts I and II," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp (part 1) 108-111, 10 refs, pp (part II) 112-115, 9 refs. (NEN Aug 1996)

Hidetaka Sada (Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd., Nucl. Plant Engr. Dept., Kobe Shipyard, Japan), “Theory of Nuclear Reactions in Solids,” Fusion Technol., vol 32, no 1, Aug. 1997, pp 107-125, 32 refs. (NEN Sept. 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 125, abstract only.

Ruggero Maria Santilli (Pres., The Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL), “Nuclear Realization of Hadronic Mechanics, I: Invariant Representation of Nonpotential Nuclear Forces,” J New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 63-74, 9 refs.

Ruggero Maria Santilli (Pres., The Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL), “Nuclear Realization of Hadronic Mechanics, II: Exact Representation of Total Nuclear Magnetic Moments and the Prediction of the Stimulated Neutron Decay,” J New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 75-84, 7 refs.

Ruggero Maria Santilli (Pres.,The Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL), The Physics of New Clean Energies and Fuels According to Hadronic Mechanics, J. New Energy, vol 4, no 1, Summer 1999, 314 pp, illus. Special issue, Twenty Two Years of Research Extending Quantum Mechanics for New Industrial & Energy Products.

Lev G. Sapogin (Dept. Phys., MADI - Tech. Univ., Moscow), “Energy Generation Processes and Cold Nuclear Fusion in Terms of Schrodinger Equation,” Chin. J. Nucl. Phys., 19(2), pp 115-120 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 128, abstract only.

T. Senjuh, H. Kamimura, T. Uehara, M. Sumi, S. Miyaskita, T. Sigemitsu, N. Asami (R&D Ctr. for New H. Energy, Inst. Appl. Energy, Sapporo, Japan), “Experimental Study of Electrochemical Deuterium Loading of Pd Cathodes in the LiOD/D2O System,” J. Alloys Compd., vol 253-254, pp 617-620 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 123, abstract only.

Dr. I.M. Shakhparonov (Moscow, Russia), “Kozyrev-Dirac Emanation Methods of Detecting and Interaction with Matter,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 40-45, 9 refs, 16 figs.

I. M. Shakhparonov (Moscow, Russia), “Interaction Between Kozyrev-Dirac Radiation and Radionuclides,” J New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 85-89, 11 refs, 4 figs.

Norman Silliman (Pleasant Hill, CA), “In Search of a Warp Drive,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 98- 104, 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 table.

Norman Silliman (Pleasant Hill, CA), “In Search of a Single Photon,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1997, pp 66-68, 7 refs, 3 figs.

Norman Silliman (Pleasant Hill, CA), “The Electro-Magnetic Wave Misnomer,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 46-49, 11 refs, 2 figs, 1 table.

Roman Edmund Sioda (Inst. Indust. Organic Chem., Poland), “Can Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions be Contained Page 18 of 25

in Metal Deuterides?” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 62-66, 30 refs.

Roman E. Sioda (Inst. Indust. Organic Chem., Poland), “Cavity in Metal (Hohlraum) Limited-Radiation Effect and Law,” Curr. Top. Electrochem., vol 3(2), pp 349-355 (English) 1994; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 126, abstract only.

Kenneth Shoulders, Steve Shoulders (Bodega, CA), "Observations on the Role of Charge Clusters in Nuclear Cluster Reactions," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 111-121, 5 refs, 22 figs. Proc. 2nd Conf. Low- Energy Nucl. Reactions, TX, 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

A. Shyam, T.C. Kaushik (Neutron Phys. Div., Bhabha Atomic Res. Cntr., Mumbai, India), “Absence of Neutron Emission during Interaction of Deuterium with Metal at Low Energies,” Pramana, 1998, 50(1), pp 75-83. Proc. INE’98 Symp., Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 181, abstract only.

A.V. Smilga, V.P. Snilga (Inst. Tero. Eksp. Fix., Moscow, Russia), “A Small Physical Effect [in Cold Fusion],” Ross. Khim. Zh., vol 40(3), pp 122-126 (Russian) 1996; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 125, abstract only.

Xing Song, Jianbo Liu (Dept. Chem., Qinghua Univ., Beijing, PR China), “Cold Fusion and Its Lessons,” Huaxue Tongbao, (1), pp 54-58 (Chinese) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 126, abstract only.

M. Srinivasan (Physics Group, BARC, India), "Cold Fusion: Promising New Source of Energy from Water," Physics News, bulletin of the Indian Physics Association, vol 27, no 1, March 1996, pp 48-52. (NEN Oct 1996)

J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 128, abstract only.

M. Srinivasan (Phys. Group, BARC, India), “New Lattice-Nucleus Coupling Mechanisms and Possible Energy Production,” IEEE/NPSS Symp. Fusion Ing., 16th (vol 2), pp 1617-1621 (English) 1995; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 125, abstract only.

M. Srinivasan (Phys. Group, Bhabha Atomic Res. Cntr., Mumbai, India), “Cold Fusion: Promising New Source of Energy from Water,” Phys. News (Mumbai, India), 27(1) 1996, pp 48-52. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, pp 181, abstract only.

Roy Stewart (Design Engineer), “A Possible Explanation for Crop Circles with Some Comments on Animal Mutilations and Flying Saucers,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 68-70.

Gherardo Stoppini (Univ. Pisa, Phys., Dept.. Piazza Torricelli, Italy), “Nuclear Processes in Hydrogen-Loaded Metals,” Fusion Tech., vol 34, no 1, Aug 1998, pp 81-85, 8 refs, 1 fig. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, p 94, abstract only.

V.I. Sugakov (Nat. Acad. Nauk Ukraini, Viddilennya Fiziki I Astronomii, Ukraine), “Conditions for Inducing, Dynamics, and manifestation of Atom Acceleration in Nonequilibrium Crystals,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh., vol 41, no 9 (1996), pp 834-839, in Ukrainian; Chem. Abs., vol 126, no 7 (1997). (NEN Oct 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 127, abstract only.

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technology, Weston, MA), "Four Definitions of Power Ratio used to Describe Excess Enthaply in Solid-State Loading Systems," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 54-59, 24 refs, 1 fig, 1 table. (NEN Aug 1996)

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technologies, MA), Letter to Editor, "The Relative Impact of Thermal Stratification of the Air Surrounding a Calorimeter," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 141-143, 6 refs, 1 fig. (NEN Aug 1996)

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technol., MA), “Possible Deuterium Production from Light Water Excess Enthalpy Page 19 of 25

Experiments Using Nickel Cathodes,” J. New Energy. vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 68-79, 49 refs, 5 figs, 1 table. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, Collage Station, TX, 1996.

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technologies, MA), "Deuterium Production and Light Water Excess Enthalpy Experiments using Nickel Cathodes," J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 219-221, 9 refs. Proc. 2nd. Conf. Low-Energy Nucl. Reactions, TX, 1996. (NEN Oct 1996)

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technol., MA), “Hydrogen Redistribution by Catastrophic Desorption in Select Transition Metals,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 26-33, 52 refs, 4 figs.

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technol., MA), “Consistency of the Biphasic Nature of Excess Enthalpy in Solid-State Anomalous Phenomena with the Quasi-One-Dimensional Model of Isotope Loading into a Material,” Fusion Technol., vol 31, no 1, Jan. 1997, pp 63-74, 36 refs, 6 figs. J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, p 108, abstract only.

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technol., MA), “Phusons in Nuclear Reactions in Solids,” Fusion Technol., vol; 31, no 2, Mar. 1997, pp 228-236, 55 refs, 2 figs, 3 tables. (NEN April 1997) (NEN June 1997)

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technol., MA), “Explanation for Some Differences Between Reports of Excess Heat in Solid State Fusion Experiments,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1997, pp 60-65, 28 refs.

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technology, Inc., Wellesley Hills, MA), “Biphasic Behavior in Thermal Electrolytic Generators using Nickel Cathodes,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97009. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 130, abstract only.

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technol., Inc., Wellesley Hills, MA), “Codepositon on Palladium and Deuterium,” Fusion Technol., vol 32, no 1, Aug. 1997, pp 126-130, 14 refs, 2 figs, 1 table. (NEN Sept. 1997) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 125, abstract only.

Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Technol., Inc., Wellesley Hills, MA), “Noise Measurement in Cold Fusion Systems,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 56-61, 19 refs, 2 figs.

Mitchell Swartz (JET Technol., Inc., Wellesley Hills, MA), “Metachronous Release of Nuclear Ash Linked to Excess Heat,” Cold Fusion Times, vol 5, no 3, Fall 1997, p 1. J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 125, abstract only.

Mitchell Swartz (JET Technol., Inc., Wellesley Hills, MA), “Thermal Conduction and Non-Differential Temperature Corrections to the Enthalpic Flow Equation,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 10-13, 15 refs, 1 fig, 1 table.

Mitchell Swartz, Gayle Verner ( JET Technol., Inc., Wellesley Hills, MA), “The Importance of Controlling Zero-Input Electrical Power Offset,” J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, pp 14-19, 15 refs, 3 figs.

Mitchell Swartz (JET Technol., Inc., Wellesley Hills, MA), “Patterns of Failure in Cold Fusion Experiments,” IECEC- 98. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 1, Spring 1998, p 95, abstract only.

Mitchell Swartz (JET Energy Technologies, Wellesley Hills, MA), Hal Fox (Trenergy, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), “Metanalysis of Research and Development in Cold Fusion,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug, 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 141-142, 5 refs, 1 fig.

Mitchell Swartz, Gayle Verner (JET Energy Technologies, Wellesley Hills, MA), “Bremsstrahlung - Relative Role in Hot and Cold Fusion and Impact Upon Potential Isotopic Fuels,” J New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 90- 101, 22 refs, 2 figs, 1 table.

Page 20 of 25

S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss (Naval Command, Control & Ocean Surveillance Ctr., RDT & E Div., San Diego, CA), “Nuclear and Thermal Events Associated with Pd + D Codeposition,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 54- 67, 19 refs, 8 figs.

Stanislaw J. Szpak, Pamela A. Mosier-Boss (NCCOSC RDT & E Div., San Diego, CA), “Thermal and Nuclear Events Associated with Pd + D Codeposition,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97120. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 130-131, abstract only.

Akito Takahashi, Hirotake Fukuoka, Kenichi Yasuda, Manabu Taniguchi (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Grad. Sch., Osaka Univ., Yamadaoka, Japan), “Experimental Study on Correlation Between Excess Heat and Nuclear products by D2O/Pd Electrolysis,” Int. J. Soc. Mater. Eng. Resour., 6(1), 1998, pp 4-13. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 181, abstract only.

M. Teshigawara, K. Konashi, T. Yamamoto, H. Kayano, Y. Aratone, K. Furukawa, E. Tachikawa (Oarai Branch, Inst. Mat’ls. Res., Tohoku Univ., Japan), “Heavy Ion Induced D-D Fusion in Deuteride Solid,” JAERI -Res., vol 96- 011, pp 55-56 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 127, abstract only.

Paramahamsa Tewari (Former Executive Dir. Nucl. Power Corp., India), “On Planetary Motion Caused by Solar Space-Vortex,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 143-157, 3 refs, 5 figs.

Paramahamsa Tewari (Former Executive Dir. Nucl. Power Corp., India), “Creation of Galactic Matter, and Dynamics of Cosmic Bodies Through Spatial Velocity-Field,” J New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp. 102-116, 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 table.

Dean Troyer (Saranac, MI), “A Momentum Producing Machine,” J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 2997, pp 118-122,.

George S. Turchaninov (Radio Dept., Krasnoyarsk State Technical Univ., Russia), I.G. Turchaninov (Phys. Dept., Omsk State Univ., Russia), “Closed Electric Current in Polarized Non-Homogeneous Media,” J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, pp 85-100, 13 refs, 4 figs.

Colin Walker (Vancouver, B.C. Canada), "Is the Redshift a Quantum Effect?" J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 88-91, 4 refs. (NEN Aug 1996)

Dalun Wang, Suhe Chen, Yijun Li, Mei Wang, Yibei Fu, Xin Wei Zhang, Zhang Wushou (Inst. Nucl. Phys. Chem., Chengdu, P.R. China), “Research and Progress of Nuclear Fusion Phenomenon at Normal Temperature,” Hewuli Dongtai, vol 12(4), pp 31-32 (Chinese) 1995; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 129, abstract only.

Shaojie Wang, Lijian Qiu, Qiang Xu, Guishi Luan (Inst. plasma Phys., Academia Sinica, Hefei, P.R. China), “Analysis of ICRF Second Harmonic Heating of Tritium in a D-T Fusion Reactor,” Hejubian Yu Dengliziti Wuli, 16(4), 1996, pp 36-42. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 181, abstract only.

Tieshan Wang, Yubo Piao, Jifang Hao, Xuezhi Wang, Genming Jin, Zhanqu Niu (Inst. Modern Phys., Chinese Acad. Sci., Lanzhou, P.R. China), “Anomalous Phenomena in E<18 keV Hydrogen Ion Beam Implantation Experiments on Pd and Ti,” Chin. J. Nucl. Phys., 19(4), 1997, pp 224-249. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, p 182, abstract only.

Fritz G. Will (EPRI, Palo Alto, CA), “Hydrogen + Oxygen recombination and Related Heat Generation in Undivided Electrolysis Cells,” J. Electroanal. Chem., vol 246(1-2), 1997, pp 177-184 (English); Fusion Fact section of J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, p 124, abstract only.

Floyd A. Wyczalek (FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI), “Einstein’s Special Relativity - Kinematical Part 1, Einstein Page 21 of 25

for Philistines,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97544. (NEN Aug. 1997, Abs. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 131, abstract only.

Floyd A. Wyczalek (FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI), “Einstein’s Special and General Relativity Energy Conversion Engineering Applications,” IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97552. (NEN Aug. 1997, Ab. only) J. New Energy, vol 2, no 2, Summer 1997, p 131, abstract only.

Jiefu Yang, LiJun Tang, XiaoMei Chen (Hunan Normal Univ., People Rep. China), “Possible Nuclear Process in Deuterium-Metal System,” Changsha Dianli Xueyuan Xue-bao, Ziran Kexueban, vol 11, no 3, 1996, pp 289-295 (Eng.); Changsha Dianli Xueyuan Xuebao Bianjibu. Chem. Abs., vol 126, no 14, 1997. (NEN Feb 1998) J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 130, abstract only.

H. Yamada, H. Nonaka, A. Dohi, H. Hirahara, T. Fujiwara, X. Li, A. Chiba (Fac. Engr., Iwate Univ., Japan), “Carbon Production on Palladium Point Electrode with Neutron Burst under DC Glow Discharge in Pressurized Deuterium Gas,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 55-58, 4 refs, 5 figs.

Hiroshi Yamada, Tamiya Fujiwara (Dept. Elec. & Electr. Engr., Iwate Univ., Morioka, Japan), “Neutron Emission from Palladium Point Electrode in Pressurized Deuterium Gas under D.C. Voltage Application,” Int. J. Soc. Mater. Eng. Resour., 6(1), 1998, pp 14-21. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, p 182, abstract only.

Hideyuki Yuki, Takehido Sato, Tsutomu Ohtsuki, Tetsuhiko Yorita, Yuka Apki, Hirohito Yamazaki, Jirohta Kasagi,m Keizo Ishii (Nucl. Sci. Lab., Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan), “Measurement of the D(d,p)T Reaction in Ti for 2.5 < Ed < 6.5 keV and Electron Screening in Metal,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan, vol 66(1), pp 73-78 (English) 1997; J. New Energy, vol 2, no. 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 126, abstract only.

H. Yuki, T. Satoh, T. Ohtsuki, T. Yorita, Y. Aoki, H. Yamazaki, J. Kasagi (Lab. Nucl. Sci., Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan), “D + D Reaction in Metal at Bombarding Energies Below 5 keV,” J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1997, 23(10, pp 1459-1464. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 182, abstract only.

David G. Yurth (Salt Lake City, UT), “A New Approach to a Unified Field Theory,” Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 158-168, 53 refs.

Qingfu Zhang, Qingquan Gou, Zhenghe Zhu, Fusheng Liu, Jiaoming Luo, Yue Sun (Inst. Appl. Phys., Sichuan Union Univ., Chengdu, P.R. China), “The Relationship of Crystal Structure Transition of Ti-Cathode and ‘Excess Heat’ of Cold Fusion,” Yuanzi Yu Fenzi Wuli Xuebao, vol 13(3), pp 257-261 (Chinese) 1996; J. New Energy, vol 2, nos 3./4, Winter 1998, pp 129, abstract only.

Frank Znidarsic, “The Zero-Point Interaction,” J. New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 133-136, 6 refs, 4 figs.

Page 22 of 25

PATENTS

DE 19649511; “Plasma-technology layer preparation for nuclear reactions,” Reinhard Hoepfl, Heinrich Harz, Frederick p. Boody (Hoepfl, Reinhard, Germany); iss. 4 June 1998, 4 pp; appl. 29 Nov 1996. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 183.

DE 19641471; “Energy production by nuclear reactions;” Heinrich Hora (Germany); iss. 16 April 1998, 2 pp. appl. 9 Oct 1996. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2./3, Summer 1998, p 183. Also J. New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, p 126, abstract only.

JP 97 15,210; “Method for identifying nuclides that can be produced in cold nuclear fusion;” Tetsuo Yuhara, Hiroshi Futami (Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd., Japan); 17 Jan 1997; appl. 29 June 1996; 4 pages (Japan). J. New Energy, vol 2 nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 135.

JP 97 197,077; “Electrodes for cold fusion and methods for manufacturing radioactive and non radioactive elements and noble metals using the nuclear transitions;” Teiko Notoya (Japan; 6 pp.; 31 July 1997, appl. 11 Jan 1996. J. New Energy, vol 2 nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 135.

JP 97 113,661; “Method and apparatus for cold nuclear fusion,” Yotaro Hashimoto (Eiwa K.K., Japan); 2 May 1997; 5 pp.; appl. 19 Oct 1995. J. New Energy, vol 2 nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 135.

JP 08 313,633; “Method for nuclear fusion, nuclear fusion engine and a mechanical system containing it:” Takeshi Hatanaka (Japan); 29 Nov 1996; 11 pp.; appl. 22 May 1995 (Japan). J. New Energy, vol 2 nos 3/4, Winter 1997, pp 136.

JP 09 257 973; Exhaust device in analytical apparatus for proving cold fusion; Akiyuki Koreeda (ULVAC Japan, Ltd., Japan); iss. 3 Oct 1997; appl. 21 Mar 1996, 3 pp. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 183.

JP 09 197 077; Electrodes for cold fusion and methods for manufacturing radioactive and nonradioactive elements and noble metals using the nuclear transitions; Reiko Notoya (Japan); iss. 31 July 1997; appl. 16 Nov 1996; 6 pp. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 183.

JP 09 015 210; Method for identifying nuclides that can be produced in cold nuclear fusion; Tetsuo Yuhara, Hiroshi Futami (Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd. Japan), iss. 17 Jan 1997; appl. 29 Jun 1995; 4 pp. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 183.

JP 10039096; “Manufacture of positron-emitting isotopes by an electrolytic system using cold fusion reaction;” Reiko Notoya (Japan); iss. 13 Feb 1998; Heisei, 4 pp. (Japanese). J. New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, p 126, abstract only.

WO 98 03 699; Nuclear transmuted elements having unnatural isotopic distribution by electrolysis and method of production: James A. Patterson, George H. Miley (USA); iss. 17 Jan 1997; appl. 29 June 1995; 4 pp. Proc. INE’98 Symp. New Energy, Aug 1998, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, 1998, p 183.

WO 9849689; “Method and device to obtain heat energy;” Alexandre Nikolaevitch Lichtchouk, Evgeny Yurievich Mourishev (Savic Trust Reg., Vaduz, Liechtenstein), iss. 5 Nov 1998, 20 pp, appl. 28 Apr 1997. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 125, abstract only.

WO 9849688; Device to obtain heat energy, working medium and electrodes to be used in this device, material for working medium and electrodes, and method to obtain this material; Alexandre Nikolaevitch Lichtchouk, Evgeny Yurievich Mourishev (Savic Trust Reg., Vaduz, Liechtenstein); iss. 5 Nov 1998, 36 pp, appl. 28 Apr 1997. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, pp 125, abstract only.

Page 23 of 25

WO 9743768; “Coproduction of energy and helium from deuterium,” Leslie C. Case (USA); iss. 20 Nov 1997, 17 pp; app: 12 May 1997; pri.: 10 May 1996. J. New Energy, vol 3, no 4, Spring 1999, p 126, abstract only.

Page 24 of 25

BOOK REVIEWS

Dr. Myron W. Evans (Dir. AIAS, Ithaca, NY), Open Questions in Relativistic Physics, ed. Franco Selleri. Proceedings of an International Conference “Relativistic Physics and Some of its Applications,” June 1998, Athens, Greece. Proceedings INE’98 Symposium for New Energy, Aug 14-15, 1998, Salt Lake City, UT, J. New Energy, vol 3, no 2/3, Summer/Fall 1998, pp 169-171.

Page 25 of 25

A Practical Guide to Free-Energy Devices eBook Download[470]

Authored by Patrick J. Kelly, this eBook has more than 400 bookmarks to speed access to any section of interest. The contents of this eBook is only about 5% of the information on the http:www.free-energy-info.tuks.nl web site.

The categories used to differentiate the devices is similar to the approach taken ini this Wiki as follows:

Chapter 1: Magnet Power

Chapter 2: Moving Pulsed Systems

Chapter 3: Motionless Pulsed Systems

Chapter 4: Gravity-Powered Systems

Chapter 5: Energy-Tapping Pulsed Systems

Chapter 6: Battery-Charging Pulsed Systems

Chapter 7: Aerial Systems and Electrostatic Generators

Chapter 8: Fuel-less Motors

Chapter 9: Passive Systems

Chapter 10: Vehicle Systems

Chapter 11: Other Devices and Theories

http://www.free-energy-info.tuks.nl/PJKBook.html

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