LENR (“cold fusion”)

From HeroX
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Background of technology, including the basic science foundation

Nuclear fusion power is based on fusing atomic nuclei together to create elements, or isotopes, that have a higher nuclear mass. [Note that this is a different process to that used in today's nuclear power stations: they use nuclear fission, which involves splitting nuclei up into lighter elements, or isotopes.]

Typically, after the fusion reaction, this results in a loss of total mass. This lost mass is converted into energy, in accordance with Einstein's famous equation E = mc2. The mass lost is represented by m, and the c is the speed of light. Given that the speed of light squared is a huge number, the conversion of just a small amount of mass into energy produces a lot of energy.

However, fusing nuclei together presents a significant challenge because of the electrostatic repulsion of the positively charged nuclei that force them apart. In the Sun this is achieved by the high temperatures and pressures at its core. Here on Earth, we have achieved nuclear fusion, of hydrogen isotopes, by the high temperatures of an initial fission explosion that triggers a Hydrogen bomb; or in the laboratory by heating plasma to very high temperatures. This is slowly showing signs of progress, and an international demonstrator project (ITER[1]) is underway to show how this could be used to produce electricity. This is a large and expensive project, costing billions and spanning decades.

The following video provides a nice introduction to the subject of power from nuclear fusion: Is alluring but elusive fusion energy possible in our lifetime?[2]

If a lower temperature approach to fusion was viable then it might be simpler, cheaper, and available to more people. Such a low-temperature approach is referred to as "cold fusion". However, conventional theoretical physics expects fusion to require a high temperature to force those positively charged nuclei together. The theories for cold fusion haven't achieved widespread acceptance in the physics community, and consequently, any energy proposals in this area might require a great deal of scientific scrutiny.

Cold Fusion is based on the idea that if you load enough hydrogen or deuterium atoms inside a metal lattice, like Nickel or Palladium, they become so tightly packed close together, that they begin to fuse together. Two world renowned electrochemists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann were the first to claim the discovery of excess heat effects in cold fusion. Some of their colleagues thought that since their discovery was so important it might be a good idea to go public with an announcement through the mainstream media[3]. A useful introduction video to cold fusion has been made by Jed Rothwell on Youtube[4].

Theories on cold fusion were first published in 1989[5], by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons. They used an experiment to propose the idea that the nuclear fusion, which happens at the extreme temperatures found inside the sun or in the core of stars, could be possible at lower temperatures.  The team claimed evidence via a process involving palladium loaded with deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen[5]. However, due to inconsistencies in their experimental data[6], their theory was quickly criticized by the scientific community, and the entire concept of cold fusion gained a negative reputation, being called 'scientific chicanery' due to the invalidity of the original experiment. However, since that time, despite the stigma attached to the possibility of cold fusion, scientists have continued to explore the concept, and within the past five years, developments are pointing to the possibility of power generation[6].

Today, there are many competing theories as to the origin of the Anomalous Heat Effect. Indeed, leading physicists from around the world are trying to establish which mechanisms explain the observed phenomena of excess heat generation and, in some cases, nuclear transmutation. Broadly speaking, the following categories can be distinguished:

  • Theories that assume in some way deuterium fuses to Helium under mild conditions (e.g. prof Kim's theory[7])
  • Theories assuming a nuclear process, but not D-D fusion (e.g. Widom-Larsen theory[8])
  • Theories assuming non-nuclear processes, but some kind of process in between chemical and nuclear (e.g. Dufour's Pico-chimie[9], Mills' hydrino theory[10]

A recent article by Chava Science, tries to link some of the observations in the LENR/Cold Fusion domain with Dan Sheehan's epicatalysis and observations in the HHO-domain[11].

Early Timeline

  1. March 23, 1989 - The Press Conference
  2. Shortly after the press conference announcing the experiment results, led by the University Vice President James J. Brophy, the University of Utah created the multi-million dollar National Cold Fusion Institute in support of this new field of research.[12]
  3. April 18, 1989 - More immediately following the March 28 press conference started the attacks on Pons & Fleicshmann's work; Massachusetts Institute for Technology (MIT) Associate Professor Ronald G. Ballinger (SM '82) voiced doubt about cold fusion claims in a piece put out by The Tech (MIT school paper established back in 1881[13]) titled just that: 'MIT prof voices doubt about cold fusion claims'.
  4. May 1, 1989 - Less than two months after the press conference, the American Physical Society held a session on cold fusion in Baltimore, including many reports of experiments that failed to produce evidence of cold fusion. At the end of the session, eight of the nine leading speakers stated that they considered the initial Fleischmann and Pons claim dead, with the ninth, Johann Rafelski abstaining. Steven E Koonin of Caltech called the Utah report a result of "the incompetence and delusion of Pons and Fleischmann," which was met with a standing ovation.[14][15]
  5. Also on May 1, 1989 - The Boston Herald with quotes from Ronald G. Ballinger (who heads MIT’s twin departments of Materials Science and Engineering and Nuclear Engineering) and Dr. Ronald R. Parker (Director of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Plasma Fusion Center) ran a front page headline titled Bombshell knocks fusion 'breakthrough' cold. A picture of Dr. Parker with a caption reading "smoke those guys out" was included in the newspaper print.[16]
  6. May 3, 1989 - The New York Times gets in on the action, publishing its hit piece titled 'Physicists Debunk Claim Of a New Kind of Fusion'.[17]
  7. May 6, 1989 - The Massachusetts Institute of Technology stance on Cold Fusion was summed up maybe most clearly, concisely, (and scientifically) by this quote from MIT Professor of Physics Emeritus Martin Deutsch:
    "In one word, it's 'garbage'" (see page 26 for quote)
  8. By June 26, 1989, MIT was literally trying to declare the idea of Cold Fusion dead when the MIT Plasma Fusion Center holds a mock funeral for it, a party it called the “Wake for Cold Fusion”[18]. (see flyer here)
  9. June 1990, MIT's more detailed and official (following up on their media campaign) slamming of cold fusion was released, Hot and Cold: The Press for Cold Fusion.[19]
  10. By 1990, Pons & Fleischmann literally seemed to be put on the run by the scientific community, as an October 26, 1990 New York Times Article described:
    "State of Utah yesterday formulated a plan to track down the enigmatic researcher and hold him accountable for his work.
    The state's nine-member Fusion Energy Advisory Council said the scientist, Dr. B. Stanley Pons, a University of Utah chemist, and his British colleague, Dr. Martin Fleischmann, would be asked to go to Salt Lake City next month to defend their research before a four-member panel of independent scientists.
    The advisory council put off a decision on whether to recommend that the State Legislature renew financing of the National Cold Fusion Institute, a nonprofit corporation in Salt Lake City where Dr. Pons and Dr. Fleischmann are top employees. So far the state has devoted $5 million to the cold fusion effort, which is viewed with extreme skepticism by many if not most scientists.
    Established Hope for Vast Energy, the institute, which now has about 40 scientists, was founded by the University of Utah after Dr. Pons and Dr. Fleischmann announced in March 1989 that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperature in a simple table-top experiment. The announcement held out the hope of a cheap, safe and virtually inexhaustible source of energy."[20]
  11. A 1994 TV Episode of Good Morning America (see video here), Pons & Fleischmann confirmed, if they wanted to continue their research into cold fusion, they could NOT do it in America, both had already moved to the South of France where Japanese Investors funded them with a multi-million dollar laboratory.[21]
  12. Around this same time, a non-profit, the New Energy Foundation[22], emerged to assist.  Their YouTube channel has a large collection of interviews from Dr. Eugene Mallove (see 1998 Mallove interview here) of Infinite-Energy Magazine.
  13. January 1, 2004 - Nearly 15 years after the initial press conference and its subsequent burial, cold fusion still hadn't gone away as Steve Krivit[23], Publisher and Senior Editor, New Energy Times, releases his book, Rebirth of Cold Fusion.[24][25]
  14. But sadly, May 14, 2004, maybe Pons & Fleishchmann's single most effective advocate, Dr. Eugene Mallove, while still hot on the trail of cold fusion, was savagely murdered, stabbed to death in front his childhood home in Norwich, CT.[26]
    1. If you would like a significant expansion of the details on the above outlined sequence of of early events surrounding cold fusion (LENR), see the 1999 (re-released 2003), 57 page document produced by Dr. Mallove, titled MIT and Cold Fusion: A Special Report provides as great timeline of events.
    2. Dr. Eugene Mallove's book, Fire & Ice: Searching for Something Behind Cold Fusion, totals 340 pages and stands as the early and exhaustive detail in support of Pons & Fleischmann cold fusion, by someone who was there.
    3. One of the last interviews Eugene Mallove gave was in April 2004, on the "COLD FUSION", the "21st Century" radio show (hosted by Dr. Bob Hieronimus), Mallove discussed fellow guest Dr. Mitchell Swartz the system he demonstration that produced excess heat over five days during MIT's very own ICCF-10, Cambridge, MA, August '03. Here is an excerpt (see entire interview transcript here):
Dr Mallove:  "The existence of the cold fusion demonstrations [the JET Thermal Product ICCF10 Demonstration unit and the students from Oregon under Prof. Dash] at MIT warmed my soul because MIT is our alma mater, our mutual alma mater. Dr. Swartz and I are both MIT graduates.  We are disappointed very greatly by its hot fusion people attacking cold fusion.  So this conference and demonstration was sort of redemption, you might say.  I mean here we had at MIT a working reactor that was within a few thousand feet of the Tokamak hot fusion laboratory which has consumed something like approximately a half billion dollars federal funds over the last 15 years. The hot fusion graduate students have learned this or that but the program is going absolutely no where. And here just a few thousand feet away in a public setting, attended mostly by people who were attending the ICCF-10 conference but including many other members of the public, there was a working cold fusion reactor.  
 The overall experience was positive and that fact, historically, will never be erased at this point.  In the year 2003, an actual working cold fusion reactor of significant performance, and very accurately measured performance, was done by an MIT graduate, namely Dr. Swartz, at MIT." 
Martin Fleischmann passed away August 3, 2012, he was 85[27]. Established in his honor, the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project stated "goal is to facilitate the wide-spread replication and validation of New Fire experiments, such as Francesco Celani's, at reputable research institutions around the world." Here are links to their Website and YouTube.

Current State of the Technology

The phenomenon called (LENR) Low Energy Nuclear Reactions has been studied for the last 28 years since its discovery (officially announced March 23, 1989, see press conference here) by Professors Martin Fleischmann (March 29, 1927 – August 3, 2012), Fellow of the Royal Society, and Stanley Pons (born August 23, 1943). The discovery was met with considerable skepticism, but supporting evidence has accumulated, plausible theories have been suggested, and research is continuing in at least eight countries. The evidence supports the claim that a nuclear reaction between deuterons to produce helium can occur in special materials without application of high energy. This reaction is found to produce clean energy at potentially useful levels without the harmful byproducts normally associated with a nuclear process.[28]

Blackrock Inc, the world's largest asset manager[29], in a 2012 report said:
We are closely following start-ups experimenting with new technologies such as low-energy nuclear reaction and fusion. If successful, these efforts could completely change the current status quo and hurt traditional energy producers. It is worth watching this space. People tend to overestimate what can be done in a year, but underestimate what can happen in a decade.[30]
The words "cold fusion" is so toxic the researchers who work on it nowadays don't even call it that. After years of being rejected by scientists over false claims and outsized hype, they are now calling the field low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR)[31]. Initiated by claims for ‘cold fusion’, research is continuing on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) which have some empirical support but no accepted scientific explanation as yet. LENRs apparently use weak nuclear interactions (rather than strong force as in nuclear fission or fusion) to create neutrons, followed by neutron capture processes. LENR experiments involve hydrogen or deuterium permeation through a catalytic layer and reaction with a metal. Researchers report that energy is released. The main practical example is hydrogen plus nickel powder evidently giving more heat than can be explained on any chemical basis[32].

Cold fusion researchers have found that isotopic and elemental changes occur during the cold fusion process.[33] Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) or Low Energy Nuclear Transmutations (LENC)[34] have been shown to occur with elements and isotopes not present at the start of the process.[35][36]

"In 1966, physicist George Gamow wrote, "Let us hope that in a decade or two or, at least, just before the beginning of the 21st century, the present meager years of theoretical physics will come to an end in a burst of entirely new revolutionary ideas similar to those which heralded the beginning of the 20th century." LENR may very well be such an opportunity to explore new science."[37]

Today, there is no publicly accessible working cold-fusion generator. There are a few claims, but most of these lack credible validation on by truly independent 3rd parties. Whilst many are convinced that there is truth to claims of observations of anomalous Excess Heat, most experiments are difficult to replicate as illustrated by the statement of Coolescence, a company founded to "rigorously examine repeated experimental reports of so-called 'cold fusion' from a number of scientists around the world. Over the past 10 years the Coolescence team has replicated the most celebrated of these experiments, with no positive results that have not been attributable to measurement artifacts or chemical effects."[38]

A few of the more notable recent 3rd party validations are:

  • SRI's confirmation of results at Brillouin[39] in 2017 : "The results described in this report suggest that Brillouin can now produce repeatable, small scale LENR reaction heat on the order of up to several watts of power, on a fully controlled basis, on demand… While these achievements are still being produced in a test laboratory at bench scale, they are uniquely pointing to an engineering pathway to evolve an actual commercial design."

In 2013, after months of planning and at the request of America’s most famous American Indian Russell Means, James Martinez made the arrangement for the first donated Cold Fusion device from America be given to The Russell Means Library for the Lakota Nation and for Russell Means being the first public figure to support Cold Fusion in the history of the world.[40]

LENRaries, an industry research report published by the Anthropocene Institute in February 2017, chronicles the growing global movement of scientists, researchers, entrepreneurs, engineers and academics working to realize the dream of developing renewable LENR technologies. The report identifies and profiles 114 entities actively engaged in LENR discovery. More than 50 of those are identified as commercial R&D entities having raised more than $250 million to develop low-carbon LENR technologies. LENRaries also discusses how LENR technologies have advanced in terms of power density and duration and why they are edging closer to developing various devices and serving a wide range of applications, including commercial- level power generation. To view or download a copy of LENRaries, visit www.anthropoceneinstitute.com/LENRaries

Required inputs for energy generation

The inputs for any energy generation process can be represented as shown in the System Representation. [41] The efficiency of the system is represented by the output energy divided by the input energy. Note that all energy inputs should be accounted for, including any internal energy storage within the prototype itself. This internal energy could be in any form, not just electrical energy. This point might be particularly relevant to LENR prototypes.

Most LENR experiments work with an excitation energy to get the reaction going. This is usually electric or thermal energy, but other types of activation are known (laser, acoustic, ...). In most experiments on-going input energy has been required, but some instances of so-called self-sustaining reactions have been observed, at least for certain periods of time (e.g. Dennis Cravens' experiment[42]). If thermal activation is indeed possible, then there is indeed no fundamental reason why LENR reactions shouldn't be able to keep going by using their own reaction energy to activate further reactions.

Organizations/researchers working with this technology

The ICCF Series

Unlike some other "exotic" energy technologies, the field of LENR has a certain critical mass. An international community of researchers is active in this field today. In some instances formally endorsed by their institution (such as the SKNIR Lab at Mizzou), in other instances with less institutional support, and yet others in more or less mature start-ups. Most are active members of the International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ISCMNS)[43]. The society publishes its own journal, and organises (bi)annual international conferences known as the ICCF series.[44] ICCF18[45] was held in Missouri (USA), ICCF19[46] in Padua (Italy) and the most recent, ICCF20[47] in Sendai (Japan).

Cold Fusion Times provides in depth coverage of these annual events; ICCF-20 the most recent, held in October 2016 in Sendai, Japan.

Some of the more well-known groups / companies active today are [48]

Private Companies

Brilliant Light Power

(formerly BlackLight Power[49] and HydroCatalysis Inc[50])

One potential development[51] in the revival of cold fusion as a power source comes from a New Jersey-based company called Brilliant Light Power (BLP)[10]. The company founded by physicist Randell L. Mills claims to have developed a device called the SunCell which "catalytically converts hydrogen directly[10] into dark matter form called Hydrino releasing brilliant high-energy light which is down-converted in energy to facilitate the production of electricity using commercially-available concentrator photovoltaic cells." Note that Mills does not claim any nuclear processes are taking place, it's just about the hydrogen electron coming closer to the nucleus.

However, Mill's developments are being met with some of the same criticisms that original theories in cold fusion were. His power source relies on a concept he has coined the hydrino, which itself relies on Mills' own theory that he calls "The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics,"[10] which proposes a new model of atoms and molecules that is highly controversial for butting up against currently accepted theories in quantum physics.  However, despite lack of universal acceptance, BLP has garnered at least enough support to generate $110 million[51] in research investments.

Mills has faced criticism from well-respected physicists, including Andreas Rathke, a former research fellow at the European Space Agency.  His article, "A Critical Analysis of the Hydrino Model"[52] points out inconsistencies in Mill's work. Rathke believes that Mill's theories of hydrino states are highly incompatible with standard quantum physics and that his experiments are flawed. However, Rathke does note[52] that while Mill's experimental method may be faulty, that does not entirely discredit LENR as a potential energy source.

Industrial Heat

Industrial Heat, founded by visionary entrepreneur Tom Darden[53], has been one of the largest players in LENR to date, with reported cumulative investment of over 50mln$ backed by Woodford investment management.[54][55] The company has been cooperating with / investing in different LENR researchers, of which Andrea Rossi is the most publicised. A good insight into Darden's motivations can be found in Marianne Macey's interview "Moving the Needle"[56] 

Leonardo Corporation / Andrea Rossi

The most high-profile recent development in cold fusion/LENR as a power source comes from Italian engineer Andrea Rossi. Rossi and team claim[57] to have developed a reactor they've named E-Cat/ Energy Catalyzer that they claim produces energy from a self sustaining cold fusion process. They have since patented the device[57].

Two reports by credible scientific teams have been produced that also outline successful tests of the device, one by a Swedish team; "Indication of anomalous[58] heat energy production in a reactor device" and one by an Italian team; "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel", which support the idea that Rossi has indeed created a successful route to harnessing cold fusion for future use as a power source.

In addition to apparent successful tests of Rossi's development, there have now been claims of successful replications, by Russia[59] and China.[60]  Both countries have reported generating heat energy via LENR.

Unfortunately, Rossi is currently in a serious litigation with his principal partner Industrial Heat, which essentially evolves around the claims of the veracity of excess heat[61]. There is significant interest from the LENR community for this litigation, which started in Feb 2016.

In 2010, Andrea Rossi's application to the U.S. Patent Office received this rejection letter response from the USPTO, sent to Hedman & Costigan, P.C. One Rockefeller Plaza, 11th Floor, NY, New York 10020.

Brillouin Energy

Berkeley-based Brillouin Energy[62], founded by Robert Godes, has been making steady progress using their proprietary Q-pulse technology. Most recent result in this area is a January 2017 validation report[63][39] by SRI researcher Fran Tanzella. Following that validation report, on March 1st 2017 Brillouin announced closing a 7.75mln$ investment round.[64]

Brillouin Energy’s unique form of LENR, the Controlled Electron Capture Reaction (CECR), generates excess thermal energy (heat) by using very small amounts of hydrogen, nickel and electricity for inputs.[65]

  • Hydrogen Hot Tube - The Brillouin lab is currently engineering a new gas-loaded design that will run at much higher temperatures, thereby increasing the power output. The Brillouin Hydrogen Hot Tube (HHT)™[66] is the core reactor of the new design.[67]

Jet Energy

Dr. Mitchell Swarz has been producing several version of his Nanor-technology, primarily based on Pd-D, over the years. Nanors appear to exhibit a level of control over the reactions that is uncommon in the field: reactions can be triggered at will, and power output scales nearly instantly with power input. Gains over 20X have been claimed. With theoretical and moral support from Peter Hagelstein at MIT, Jet Energy has organised open demonstrations of its technology at MIT[68].

In Jet Energy's own words : "This open demonstration over months has demonstrated that microprocessor controlled integrated circuits using LANR quantum optical devices containing preloaded nanostructured LANR material can be used as an effective very clean, highly efficient, energy production system, apparatus, and process."[68]

Swarz publishes in international journals, and the following abstract from a recent paper in Current Science gives a reasonable perspective on his state-of-the-art :

"Dry, preloaded NANOR®-type technology makes LANR reactions more accessible. These self-contained, two- terminal nanocomposite ZrO2–PdNiD CF/LANR com- ponents have at their core ZrO2–PdD nanostructured material. The excess energy gain compared to driving input energy is up to 20 times the input; characterized by reasonable reproducibility and controllability. The CF/LANR/CF activation is separated from its loading. Although small in size, the LANR excess power den- sity is more than 19,500W/kg of nanostructured material, with zero carbon footprint."[69]

Criticism of Swarz's technology is mainly related to the low power levels involved (milliWatts) and the absence of independent replications.

Lenuco

LENUCO LLC has been founded by Prof. Emeritus George Miley to provide a platform for the development and commercialization of LENR technology.  The company is based in Champaign, Illinois, USA on the campus of the University of Illinois, with which it has a strategic partnership.  In addition to the significant achievements in LENR cells using NI alloy nano-particles, LENUCO holds several highly valuable patents related to the LENR core technology.[70]

Lattice Energy LLC / Lewis Larsen

The Company plans to exploit an opportunity to develop a next generation energy source based on Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions ("LENRs") in metals highly loaded with protons. In view of the urgent need for new, low-cost energy sources that are biologically safe with environmentally attractive features, successful development and commercialization of Lattice's LENR technologies could have significant implications.[71][72]

Coolescence

Coolescence LLC is a privately funded research company located in Boulder, Colorado. The company was originally formed to rigorously examine repeated experimental reports of so-called 'cold fusion' from a number of scientists around the world.  Over the past 10 years the Coolescence team has replicated the most celebrated of these experiments, with no positive results that have not been attributable to measurement artifacts or chemical effects.[38]

Seashore Research LLC

Seashore research LLC was founded in 2015 with a 5mln$ grant from TexasTech University[73]. Little is publicly known about the company, but its director Robert V. Duncan is a well-known physicist in LENR and had previously helped to establish the SKINR-lab at Missouri, as well as presiding over ICCF18[45].

Nichenergy

NichEnergy srl deals with the development of new forms of sustainable energy and continues the studies started in 1989 by prof. Piantelli about heat production through an unusual chain of interactions and reactions of submicroscopic crystal clusters of Me and H2.[74] NichEnergy, based in Milano, Italy, is an alternative energy technology innovator whose proprietary process for producing energy from a nickel-hydrogen reaction is protected by two European Union-issued patents.[70]

Hydrofusion

Hydro Fusion Ltd was founded in 2011 and is a UK-based company specializing in a number of areas related to energy production. We operate from our headquarter in London and from our office branch in Stockholm. Hydro Fusion Ltd operates ECAT.com as the Official ECAT website of Leonardo Corporation and the future home for all official ECAT-related information. Being Leonardo Corporation’s Northern European Licensee Group since 2011, we play an important role in the commercialization of all ECAT Products. Hydro Fusion’s ECAT license area cover more than 10% of the World’s GDP and Energy Consumption. Hydro Fusion is the exclusive ECAT licensee for a large number of countries – including UK and Sweden.[75]

LENR cars

LENR Cars is a Swiss based company developing mobile electric generators based on LENR technology to power electric vehicles or provide heat and electric power to regular vehicles. Our LENR generators provides an affordable, safe and clean way for producing and storing energy at high capacity. Our concept of Condensed Matter Hydrogen Fuel Cells is an advanced version of our LENR generators enabling the electric power generator to become mobile and work as an on-board power generator. Our technology will allow powering an electric car like the Tesla Model S for over 30'000 km per charge of hydrogen-nickel fuel.[76]

Airbus

Airbus, one of the world's leading aircraft manufacturers, does not have a formal webpage stating they work on LENR. However, their patent activity[77][78][79] clearly shows they are following the field and developing concepts in this area. Airbus hosted an LENR workshop at their headquarters in Toulouse in early 2016.[80]

Nissan

Japanese car manufacturer Nissan has been active in the field of LENR for some time and more recently teaming up with other Japanese groups in a governments-sponsored collaboration. "The joint research team (Nano-METS) comprises six institutions: two companies, Technova and Nissan; and four universities, Tohoku, Kyushu, Nagoya and Kobe."[81] Their recent presentation at the 17th Japanese Conference on Cold Fusion (March 19th-20th 2017) can be seen as a sign of their ongoing interest in and commitment to the field.[82] The abstract of one of their contributions reads : "In this report we will report 2 things. The first one is the experimental results regarding to reproducing Parkhomov’s experiment with some disclosing experimental conditions ... The second one is our expectation on this reaction for automotive potential."

STMicroelectronics

"ST is a global semiconductor company with net revenues of US$ 6.97 billion in 2016. Offering one of the industry’s broadest product portfolios, ST serves customers across the spectrum of electronics applications with innovative semiconductor solutions for Smart Driving and the Internet of Things. By getting more from technology to get more from life, ST stands for life.augmented." As for Airbus, LENR seems only a small activity for ST, but they have filed for patents[83] and given presentations on LENR[84].

CleanPlanet Inc.

We currently live in a global society that is primarily dependent on fossil fuels and nuclear fission. It drives our economy, our geopolitics and our distribution of wealth. With the depletion of our fossil fuels and the degradation of our environment, add to that; the risks associated with nuclear fission, it is now necessary for us to seek cleaner, safer, and more abundant forms of energy.

With the recent advances made in material science and technology, we are no longer dependant only on these forms of energy. There are exciting new energy technologies on the cusp of transforming our belief in how energy can be generated. Now we can utilize cleaner, safer, and more abundant resources such as solar, geothermal, LENR(also known as cold fusion), and wind to supply our energy needs.

Clean Planet is determined to provide assistance in making these technologies the major providers for our energy needs to our global community.[85]

Universities & Government Organizations

SRI

Michael McKubre, PhD, is an electrochemist in the forefront of cold fusion energy development the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). McKubre was the director of the Energy Research Center at SRI International.[86] Now retired, McKubre's work at SRI is being carried on by Fran Tanzella, author of the recent Brillouin validation report.

SKINR

The Sidney Kimmel Institute for Nuclear Renaissance (SKINR) at the University of Missouri, formerly Energetics Technologies, Israel, also funded by Sidney Kimmel[87]

SKINR was created to encourage collaboration from scientists in several disciplines, including physics, the MU Research Reactor, engineering, material science and chemistry. The scientists involved in the institute will study the fundamental physics of certain energy-producing reactions of an unknown origin in their quest for alternative forms of energy.[88] Its directive is to find the origin of the Anomalous Heat Effect (AHE) with a sound materials science approach and with no preconceptions as to the origin of the phenomenon. To publish findings in the open literature and to openly collaborate world wide with researchers in the field and in cross disciplines.[89]

NASA

NASA has also explored the possibility of LENR for power generation. While their early experiments could not be proved that heat generated was due to cold fusion and not some other anomaly, they noted in their conclusions that further explorations around the causes of excess heat generation could, "leave the door open[90] to more interesting possibilities" for use of LENR. Small-scale studies on LENR potential[91] are still continuing.

ENEA

The Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) is an Italian Government-sponsored research and development agency. One of its researchers, Vittorio Violante, conducts LENR research.[92] Bill Gates visited ENEA in 2015 and met with Violante.[93]

Tohoku University

The Research Center for Electron Photon Science at Tohoku University and Clean Planet Inc. established a Condensed Matter Nuclear Reaction Division on April.1 2015. "Condensed Matter Nuclear Reaction" means ultra-low-energy nuclear reaction observed in a condensed matter arising from "Cold Fusion". First published in 1989, research in this field has been going on under various names, such as "Nuclear Reaction in Solid," and "Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR)". Although research on this exists in many countries, the phenomena cannot yet be explained theoretically. Through our new joint division, research and development will be performed to obtain basic data of the phenomena with the eventual aim of finding a theoretical explanation. If the phenomena is proved to be due to an unknown nuclear reaction, it will overthrow traditional nuclear theory.[94][95]

The joint research division will carry out the following research and development for at least four years.

  1. Fundamental Research on Condensed Matter Nuclear Reaction (CMNR)
  2. Development of a New Energy Generation Method
  3. Development of a New Nuclear Waste Decontamination Method

China Institute of Atomic Energy

The China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is the main research organization of the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). It conducts research and development in nuclear physics, reactor engineering, nuclear technology, plutonium extraction, and uranium isotope separation and is involved in the research, development, and application of nuclear and radiation science and technology. Songsheng Jiang, of the Ni-H research group of the institute, presented a paper titled "New result of anomalous heat production in hydrogen-loaded metals at high temperature"[96], which was subsequently reported on on nextbigfuture.com[60]

Non-Profit Organizations

Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project (MFMP)

The Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project is a group dedicated to researching Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (often referred to as LENR) while sharing all procedures, data, and results openly online. They rely on comments from online contributors to aid them in developing the experiments and contemplating the results. MFMP was founded after ICCF17 in Daejeon, South Korea by an enthusiastic group of a new generation of LENR researchers. Their stated goal is "to facilitate the wide-spread replication and validation of New Fire experiments at reputable research institutions around the world."[97] MFMP have not yet found an indisputable experiment demonstrating excess heat.

Smaller Companies / Individual Researchers

This is an incomplete list of researchers and smaller companies active in the field today. Where researchers have significant institutional backing, they are not individually listed but included in the Universities section above (e.g. all the researchers at Tohoku, or University of Missouri).

  • Cryofusion / JP Biberian[98] - French researcher, former organiser of ICCF, own private lab
  • S*PIC*E / J Dufour[99] - French researcher, formerly with Shell, private lab, several patents and publications
  • Peter Hagelstein[100] - MIT professor highly regarded in the LENR domain, mainly works on theory, chaired ICCF10
  • Yeong E. Kim[101] - Purdue professor working mainly on theory, as described in this paper[102]
  • Ed Storms[103] - former Los Alamos National Lab scientist, author of several books, numerous papers and two patents.
  • NUCAT Energy / David Nagel[104] - American research professor at The George Washington University, co-chair ICCF14
  • Pointsource / Curt Brown[105][106] American researcher, presented at MIT in 2014[107]
  • Alexander Parkhomov[59] - Russian researcher claiming to have replicated Rossi
  • Yoshiaki Arata[108] - professor emeritus at Osaka university, holding several LENR patents
  • Tadahiko Mizuno[109] - Japanese researcher, formerly of Hokkaido University, holds several LENR patents
  • Yuri Bazhutov[110] - Russian researcher, proposing how own theory of LENR called Erzion Catalysis
  • Xing-Zhong Li[111] - Chinese professor at Tsinghua unviersity, co-chair of ICCF20 satellite meeting in Xiamen[112]
  • Technova Inc / Akito Takahashi[113] - Japanese professor leading the Japanese Gvt NEDO project, chair ICCF12
  • Etiam Oy[114] - Finnish company with one patent
  • Clean Nuclear Power[115] - Swiss company with one patent, and two known LENR scientists (Alan Widom and Yogendra N. Srivastava)
  • Francesco Celani - Italian researcher in LENR domain, who gained significant notoriety bringing a live demo to ICCF17 (the "Celani-wire")[116].
  • Kresenn[117] - A British startup company apparently conducting Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) research with Italian physicist Dr. Francesco Celani.[118][119]

Reasons why the science and technology has not moved forward

The theories for cold fusion haven't achieved widespread acceptance in the physics community, and consequently, any energy proposals in this area might require a great deal of scientific scrutiny. This does not necessarily mean that cold fusion is impractical, but it certainly lags behind the progress and investment being made in the high-temperature plasma approaches, such as the ITER project mentioned above.

It is also fair to say that cold fusion is a very sensitive subject. Many scientists do not formally want to be associated with it for fear of being outcast from the physics community, as illustrated by Peter Hagelstein at MIT[120]. In today's age of instant communication, the information hypes around new developments in this space can be counterproductive as it scares serious players from the field. Adverse publicity such as this article on Fox News[121], for example, is believed to have played a role in shutting down US SPAWAR's LENR research lab[122].

There is also an unfortunate tendency by some startups to grossly oversell what they have. An excellent example of this is Defkalion Green Technologies. Now dissolved and no longer active in the field, Defkalion Green Technologies s.a. was established to manufacture and market products based on the E-Cat, which was invented by Andrea Rossi. The company quickly fell out with Rossi, and then continued their own development with technology they claimed they stole from Rossi. It now seems their demonstrations and projections were mostly hot air.[123]

At the time, their business plan read :

"We are undertaking a path from invention to industrialization on a global scale. There is no government financing involved. Its head offices are in Athens with multiple manufacturing sites located in Xanthi, in northern Greece. Defkalion possesses the know-how, technical support and rights to manufacture its products for the whole world.  Praxen Defkalion Green Technologies (Global) Ltd. is based in Cyprus; it owns the contract signed with Rossi regarding the industrial secrets with right of first refusal to sell globally, except in the US.  These two companies work towards preparing an efficient and competitive market entry of its products (Hyperion)[124] initially into the Greek market, and then with maximum efficiency to the Balkans and worldwide."

"Andrea Rossi and Sergio Foccardi have unquestionably succeeded with their invention, which is a cheap, clean, stable and safe method of producing heat from hydrogen and nickel reactions. Their device is called an Energy Catalyzer, or E-Cat. It will create a new global energy era with profound and unequivocally positive social, economic and environmental implications."[125]

This type of hype-and-fail cycle has not helped the more serious players in the field.

The tragic murder of Eugene Mallove in 2004 was a significant blow to the science of Cold Fusion and breakthrough technology energy field in general.  The 56-year-old Mallove was the author of several books, including "Fire and Ice: Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor," which was a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize in 1991. Mallove was president of the Concord, New Hampshire-based New Energy Institute, editor-in-chief of its magazine, "Infinite Energy," and a former chief science writer in the news office of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he earned bachelor's and master's degrees. He also earned a doctorate at Harvard.[126]

Costs of facilities, production, now and projected future costs with improvements

Because of its high energy density, mild reaction conditions and absence of ionising radiation, LENR devices are expected to be relatively simple and compact, with possibility of tabletop reactors. Therefore, the cost of heat energy from future devices will likely be extremely low. The cost of electricity from LENR will, in first instance, be dominated by the cost of the equipment to turn heat into electricity (steam turbines, Thermo-electric generators, ...). If subsequent LENR devices were capable of producing (semi)direct electricity instead of heat, then costs might drop much further still.

Intellectual Property surrounding technology

The following list gives a brief rundown of known patent applicants and holders for the proposed technology.[127]

  • Andrea Rossi received an Italian cold fusion patent on his e-cat Low Energy Nuclear Reaction device on April 6, 2011. As far as I know this is the only cold fusion patent Dr. Rossi holds, but he has apparently applied for patents in other countries. He has also signed at least two licensing agreements for his technology one of which he has already broken off.
  • Francesco Piantelli the University of Bologna Physicist whose research with Sergio Focardi led to Rossi’s e-cat has reportedly applied for three Italian patents of his own. Piantelli has formed his own company Nichenergy to commercialize a cold fusion process and is reportedly looking for investors. Piantelli reportedly tried to patent a cold fusion process as early as 1995.
  • Robert Godes of Brillouin Energy Corporation based in the United States was turned down for a patent on his cold fusion device. Like the e-cat, Brillouin’s device is a boiler that produces steam created by cold fusion. Godes applied for intellectual property rights but not a patent on his device as early as 1995.
  • Defkalion Green Technologies has apparently applied for a patent in Greece. Its’ Hyperion heating system and electric generator was supposed to be powered by Rossi’s e-cat. Rossi has cancelled his licensing agreement with Defkalion and is planning to sue the company. Defkalion is apparently planning to go ahead with Hyperion manufacturing. Its officials claim to have tested cold fusion technology in Greece. It is unclear if Defkalion is using cold fusion and if so what process they are using.

As of now Andrea Rossi seems to be the only one who has a patent on a working cold fusion process. Brillouin has a process but does not seem to have a patent.[127]

David French is a retired patent attorney and the principal and CEO of Second Counsel Services; his detailed analysis of patents with the space of Cold Fusion can be found here via the Cold Fusion Now platform.

Original Pons and Fleishman Patent

The original Pons and Fleischmann patent, which started it all:

  • (Fleischmann and Pons, 1989) EP 0698893 A3[128] Method and apparatus for power generation The present invention involves an apparatus and method for generating energy, neutrons, tritium or heat as a specific form of energy. The apparatus comprises a material such as a metal having a lattice structure capable of accumulating isotopic hydrogen atoms and means for accumulating isotopic hydrogen atoms in the metal to a chemical potential sufficient to induce the generation of the specified items.

Early Patents

Some of the early patents by large corporations and individual researchers, showing the interest that the Fleischmann and Pons announcement triggered:

  • (Boeing, 1990) EP 0461690 A2[129] Cold nuclear fusion thermal generator A method and apparatus are provided for generating heat energy by the cold fusion of hydrogen with boron or lithium in an electrolytic cell.
  • (Shell, 1990) WO 1991001036 A1[130] Energy source system An energy source system for carrying out a method for producing energy comprising: filling a body with at least one hydrogen isotope, at least a part of the body comprising at least one metal capable of forming a metal hydride type lattice system; arranging the body filled as at least a part of the one conductor element of a capacitor means within an electrical circuit, the other conductor element of said capacitor means being connected with an externally controllable voltage supply means; operating said voltage supply means, and recovering energy produced within said body by operating said voltage supply means. The energy source system suitably includes a working machine as a part of an integrated power cycle.
  • (Van den Bogaert, 1990) BE1002780[131] / BE1003296[132] Method for nuclear fusion of fusionable matter. The present invention provides a method for nuclear fusion of fusionable matter, wherein said matter is absorbed in an electrically conductive material and/or is enveloped with a shell of electrically conductive material, whereupon the conductive material is connected with the positive electrode of a current source, whereby electrons of the conductive material flow away and in said material a positive surplus charge is created which makes that on the positive fusionable nuclei of the fusionable matter a pressure sufficiently strong for nuclear fusion is reached. Also : BE1002781[133] Method for the production of energy by nuclear fusion. For further reference:[134][135]

Post 2000 Patents

  • (Arata, 2003) EP 1551032 A1[136] Hydrogen condensate and method of generating heat therewith The present invention provides a method of generating heat using a hydrogen condensate. The hydrogen condensate comprises a plurality of metal atoms contained in a metal nano-ultrafine particle and a plurality of hydrogen isotope atoms solid-dissolved among the plurality of metal atoms. At least two of the plurality of hydrogen isotope atoms are condensed so that the inter-atomic nuclear distance between two hydrogen isotope atoms is smaller than or equal to the internuclear spacing of a molecule consisting of two hydrogen isotope atoms. The heat generation method comprises applying energy to the hydrogen condensate and generating heat by causing the at least two hydrogen isotope atoms to react with each other due to the energy.
  • (Arata, 2006) WO 2007061019 A1[137] Method of generating heat energy and apparatus for generating heat energy A practical method of generating heat energy which attains an excellent efficiency of heat energy generation; and an apparatus for generating heat energy. The apparatus for heat energy generation has a first space and a second space which are separated from each other by a first vessel having permeability to heavy hydrogen. In the method for heat energy generation, the apparatus is used to generate heat energy. The second space is in a vacuum state and has, placed therein, a substance having the property of absorbing heavy hydrogen. The method for heat energy generation comprises a step in which heavy-hydrogen gas is fed to the first space and a step in which the temperature of the heavy-hydrogen gas present in the first space is kept within a given temperature range so that heavy-hydrogen molecules of the heavy hydrogen gas present in the first space permeate as heavy-hydrogen ions through the first vessel. Also (Arata and Zhang, 1994) WO 1995035574 A1[138] Heat energy generating method and apparatus
  • (Energetics, 2004) EP 1656678 B1[139] Pulsed low energy nuclear reaction power generators A low energy nuclear reaction power generator has different cells in which hydrogenous atoms are driven by different methods to increase atom-packing in a lattice and to increase the flux of hydrogenous atoms. An electrolytic cell is provided containing an electrically-conductive electrolyte, a glow discharge cell and a catalyst cell are each provided containing a gas, and a high pressure electrolytic ultrasonic cell is provided including a first section containing a gas and a second section containing an electrolyte, in which is provided an anode-cathode electrode pair.
  • (Dardik et al, 2006) US 20070280398 A1[140] Modified electrodes for low energy nuclear reaction power generators A low energy nuclear reaction power generator in which hydrogenous atoms are driven to increase atom-packing in a lattice and to increase the flux of hydrogenous atoms. An electrolytic cell is provided containing an anode-cathode electrode pair and an electrically-conductive electrolyte. Modifying substances, such as diamond, diamond-like, boron, beryllium, and/or carbon-based constituents, may be grown in and/or on the electrodes for enhancing the nuclear reactions. Applied across these electrodes may be a train of electrical packets, each comprised of a cluster of pulses. The amplitude and duration of each pulse, the duration of intervals between pulses, and the duration of intervals between successive packets in the train are in a predetermined pattern in accordance with superwaving waves in which each wave is modulated by waves of different frequency.
  • (Seldon Technologies, 2007) WO 2007117475 A2[141] Thermal power production device utilizing nanoscale confinement Disclosed herein is a device for generating thermal energy through a nuclear transmutation reaction when a hydrogen containing fuel comes into contact with a nanotube containing element in a reaction vessel for containing the nuclear transmutation reaction. The device further includes an energy absorption vessel containing an energy absorption fluid that absorbs energetic particles resulting from the transmutation reaction and a heat transfer system for transferring thermal energy of the energy absorption fluid to a working fluid, such as water. A method of generating power using such a device is also disclosed.
  • (Rossi, 2008) WO 2009125444 A1[142] Method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reaction A method and apparatus for carrying out highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel and hydrogen atoms in a tube, preferably, though not necessary, a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature, preferably, though not necessary, from 150 to 5000 C are herein disclosed. In the inventive apparatus, hydrogen is injected into the metal tube containing a highly pressurized nickel powder having a pressure, preferably though not necessarily, from 2 to 20 bars. 
  • (Rossi, 2015) CA 2920500 A1[143] Fluid heater "An apparatus for heating fluid includes a tank for holding fluid to be heated, and a fuel wafer in fluid communication with the fluid. The fuel wafer includes a fuel mixture including reagents and a catalyst, and an electrical resistor or other heat source in thermal communication with the fuel mixture and the catalyst." Claiming "A composition of matter for generating heat, said composition comprising a mixture of porosity-enhanced nickel powder, lithium powder, and lithium aluminum powder." 
  • (Industrial Heat, 2015) WO 2015127263 A3[144] Energy-producing reaction devices, systems and related methods A reactor device includes a reaction chamber; one or more thermal units in thermal communication with the reaction chamber configured to transfer thermal energy to the reaction chamber; and a refractory layer between the reaction chamber and the one or more thermal units. The refractory layer may include at least one recess configured to receive the one or more thermal units therein. 
  • (Piantelli, 2009) EP 2368252 B1[145] Method for producing energy and apparatus therefor The present invention relates to a process for producing energy by nuclear reactions between a metal and hydrogen that is adsorbed on the crystalline structure of the metal. Furthermore, the invention relates to an energy generator that carries out such reactions. 
  • (Piantelli, 2012) EP 2754156 A2[146] Method and apparatus for generating energy by nuclear reactions of hydrogen adsorbed by orbital capture on a nanocrystalline structure of a metal Technical problems: to increase the energy that can be obtained and to make it possible an adjusting the power supplied according to a method and an apparatus to obtain energy by nuclear reactions between hydrogen and a primary material of an active core comprising cluster crystal nanostructures a transition metal...
  • (PIantelli, 2017) US 20170038095 A1[147] METHOD FOR PRODUCING ENERGY AND APPARATUS THEREFOR - A method for producing energy by exothermal reactions between hydrogen and a transition metal comprises a step 110 of depositing an amount of crystals of the transition metal in the form of micro/nanometric clusters having a predetermined crystalline structure on a surface of a substrate, wherein each clusters has a number of atoms of the transition metal lower than a predetermined number of atoms, and in such a way that the substrate contains on its surface a number of clusters that is larger than a minimum number. The method provide also performing at least once a start-up sequence is performed at least once a start-up sequence comprising the step 114 of quantitatively removing any gas adsorbed in the substrate and in the transition metal by applying a predetermined vacuum degree, a step 120 of bringing hydrogen into contact with the crystals, a step 130 of heating the crystals up to an adsorption temperature higher than a predetermined critical temperature, thus causing hydrogen adsorption to the crystals forming a reaction core, and a step of impulsively acting on the reaction core in order to trigger the exothermal reactions between the hydrogen and the transition metal in the clusters. Once the reaction started, a step 140 is provided of removing heat from the reaction core in order to obtain a determined power and to maintain the temperature of the reaction core above the critical temperature.
  • (Mizuno et al, 2011) EP 2597652 A1[148] Nuclear transformation method and nuclear transformation device Nuclear transformation method and apparatus can produce thermal energy and hydrogen with a simple structure. A reaction cell made of metal material like iron, from which oxygen is discharged is heated by a heater at a temperature above 500°C. Water is supplied into the reaction cell to be changed into steam which reacts on the inner wall of the reaction cell to produce hydrogen and thermal energy through a nuclear transformation. In the case that a reaction agent (NaOH, K2TiO3) which includes at least alkaline metal and oxygen is accommodated in the reaction cell, a nuclear reaction occurs without the supply of water. Steam may be supplied into the reaction cell to activate the nuclear reaction and fins as a metal element supplying body may be accommodated in the reaction cell to increase the area of the metal surface.
  • (Brillouin, 2011) US 20110122984 A1[149] Energy generation apparatus and method A practical technique for inducing and controlling the fusion of nuclei within a solid lattice. A reactor includes a loading source to provide the light nuclei which are to be fused, a lattice which can absorb the light nuclei, a source of phonon energy, and a control mechanism to start and stop stimulation of phonon energy and/or the loading of reactants. The lattice transmits phonon energy sufficient to affect electron-nucleus collapse. By controlling the stimulation of phonon energy and controlling the loading of light nuclei into the lattice, energy released by the fusion reactions is allowed to dissipate before it builds to the point that it causes destruction of the reaction lattice.
  • (Brillouin, 2014) US 20140332087 A1[150]Control of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Hydrides, and Autonomously Controlled Heat A treatment of a possibly powdered, sintered, or deposited lattice (e.g., nickel) for heat generating applications and a way to control low energy nuclear reactions (“LENR”) hosted in the lattice by controlling hydride formation. The method of control and treatment involves the use of the reaction lattice, enclosed by an inert cover gas such as argon that carries hydrogen as the reactive gas in a non-flammable mixture.
  • (Krieg, 2014) DE 102014014209 A9[151] Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur kontinuierlichen Erzeugung von LENR-Wärme (Method and apparatus for continuous production of LENR heat). "Die Erfindung betrifft eine LENR-basierte Wärmequelle auf Basis der Kopplung von Nanopartikelerzeugung in einem Dielectric Barrier Discharge-Wasserstoff-Plasma (DBD-WP) mit gleichzeitiger Wärmeerzeugung durch Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) auf den erzeugten Nanopartikeln und auf der nano-strukturierten Basis-Elektrode, angeregt durch ein druckaufgeladenes Wasserstoff-Plasma." English translation: "The invention relates to a LENR-based heat source based on the coupling of nanoparticles production in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Hydrogen Plasma (DBD-WP) with simultaneous generation of heat by Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) on the generated nanoparticles and on the nano-structured base electrode, stimulated by a pressure-charged hydrogen plasma."
  • (Dufour, 2012) EP 2474501 A1[152] Energy production device and associated processes The invention deals with a device for producing energy comprising: one reservoir containing at least a chemical compound able to ad-absorb hydrogen, means to heat the content of the reservoir, means to introduce an hydrogen containing gas in said reservoir and means to control the pressure of that gas in the reservoir, characterized in that the reservoir contains also at least a chemical compound having a low work function.
  • (Sibley, 2012) CA 2772463 A1[153] Low energy nuclear device The herein described invention is an apparatus for producing thermal, electric, or mechanical energy, or a combination thereof, from the fusing of atomic nuclei at temperatures below conventional nuclear fusion temperatures. Fuel or fuels capable of undergoing nuclear fusion are stored in a reaction vessel into which an input energy is delivered by a control module to start the nuclear processes. 
  • (Etiam Oy, 2012) WO 2013076378 A2[154]Thermal-energy producing system and method System and method for producing thermal energy is based on a very large number of nanoscale particle accelerators in a volume accelerating electrons and hydrogen ions at very high local electric fields. Nanoscale particle accelerators comprise a dielectric material possessing electric polarizability and a metallic materialcapable of forming an interstitial and/or electrically conductive metal hydride and capable of enhancing the local electric field by the geometry and/or by the sufficiently small dimensions of the said metallic material. 
  • (STMicroelectronics, 2013) US 20130243143 A1[83] Reactor for energy generation through low energy nuclear reactions (lenr) between hydrogen and transition metals and related method of energy generation. An embodiment of an apparatus includes a reaction chamber, a reaction unit, and an energy regulator. The reaction chamber includes an energy port, and the reaction unit is disposed in the reaction chamber and is configured to allow an energy-releasing reaction between first and second materials. And the energy regulator is configured to control a rate at which reaction-released energy exits the reaction chamber via the energy port. 
  • (LENR Cars, 2013) US 20130263597 A1[155] Low Energy Nuclear Thermoelectric System A low energy nuclear thermoelectric system for a vehicle which provides a cost-effective and sustainable means of transportation for long operation range with zero emission using an onboard low energy nuclear reaction thermal generator. The present invention generally includes a thermal generator within a thermal enclosure case, an energy conversion system linked with the thermal generator, an energy storage system linked with the energy conversion system, a cooling system and a central control system.
  • (Clean Nuclear Power, LLC) WO 2013108159 A1[156] Nuclear reactor consuming nuclear fuel that contains atoms of elements having a low atomic number and a low mass number The invention relates to a reactor for consuming a nuclear fuel that contains atoms of elements having a low atomic number (Z) and a low mass number (A), wherein the nuclear reactor comprises a vessel containing a reaction chamber. This reaction chamber is topped and sealed by a sealed container, and contains the nuclear fuel, which comprises a colloidal mixture capable of producing Ultra Low Momentum Neutrons (ULMNs) by using electromagnetic radiations.
  • (CleanPlanet, 2014) WO 2015008859 A3[157]Reactant, heating device, and heating method A reactant capable of generating heat more stably than conventionally possible, a heating device, and a heating method are provided. This reactant (26) comprises a hydrogen storage metal comprising nanosize metal nanoparticles (metal nano protrusions) formed on the surface, and is placed in a reacting furnace having a deuterium gas atmosphere so that when hydrogen atoms are stored in the metal nanoparticles on the reactant (26), the electrons in said metal nanoparticles, strongly influenced by the surrounding metal atoms and other electrons, act as heavy electrons, and as a result, cause the internuclear distance between the hydrogen atoms in the metal nanoparticles to contract, making it possible to increase the probability of the occurrence of tunnel nuclear fusion reactions, and thus making it possible to generate heat more stably than conventionally possible. 
  • (Airbus, 2013) DE 102013110249 A1[158] Apparatus and method for power To provide an environmentally friendly thermal energy source, suitable for the transport sector, the invention provides a power generation device for generating heat energy by an exothermic reaction in the form of LENR by use of a metal lattice-assisted hydrogen process comprising: a reaction vessel with a reactive LENR material containing for carrying out the exothermic reaction, the reaction chamber, a field generating means for generating a field in the reaction chamber for activating and / or maintaining the exothermic reaction... 
  • (Airbus, 2014) WO 2015040077 A1[77] Energy generating device and energy generating method and also control arrangement and reactor vessel therefor To offer an environmentally friendly thermal energy source that is suitable for the transport sector, the invention provides an energy generating device for generating thermal energy by an exothermic reaction in the form of a metal-grating-supported hydrogen process, preferably an LENR, comprising: a reaction vessel with a reaction chamber containing reaction material for carrying out the exothermic reaction, a field generating device for generating a field in the reaction chamber for activating and/or maintaining the exothermic reaction, a heat transmission device for transmitting heat into the and/or out of the reaction chamber, and a controller... 
  • (Airbus, 2016) US 20170025191[78] Material arrangement for fusion reactor and method for producing the same A material arrangement for a fusion reactor comprising at least one material which is configured as a foam-like carrier material for condensable binding and fusing of hydrogen. The carrier material is provided with positively charged vacancies for condensing hydrogen atoms, small pores for receiving the condensate and for accelerating the condensation after previous penetration of atoms or molecules into these, and large pores for transporting a catalyst into the small pores. Furthermore, a method for producing the material arrangement is disclosed.
  • (Airbus, 2016) US 20170022055[79] METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR GENERATING AND FOR FUSING ULTRA-DENSE HYDROGEN A method for generating and for fusing ultra-dense hydrogen in which molecular hydrogen is fed into at least one cavity and catalyzed, where the splitting and subsequent condensation of the molecular hydrogen is initiated on a catalyst of the cavity to form an ultra-dense hydrogen. The ultra-dense hydrogen is exposed to pressure or electromagnetic radiation to initiate fusion of the ultra-dense hydrogen in the at least one cavity and the reaction heat is led out from the at least one cavity. The pressure as mechanical resonance or the electromagnetic radiation as electromagnetic resonance amplifies the field and therefore the effect. Also, an apparatus for carrying out the method is disclosed. 
  • (Pamela A. Boss, Frank E. Gordon, Stanislaw Szpak, Lawrence Parker Galloway Forsley, Apr 16, 2013) US 8419919 B1[159] System and method for generating particles A method may include the steps of supplying current to the electrodes of an electrochemical cell according to a first charging profile, wherein the electrochemical cell has an anode, cathode, and electrolytic solution; maintaining a generally constant current between the electrodes; exposing the cell to an external field either during or after the termination of the deposition of deuterium absorbing metal on the cathode; and supplying current to the electrodes according to a second charging profile during the exposure of the cell to the external field. The electrolytic solution may include a metallic salt including palladium, and a supporting electrolyte, each dissolved in heavy water. The cathode may comprise a second metal that does not substantially absorb deuterium, such as gold. The external field may be a magnetic field. 

Mills (from BrilliantLightPower) represents a separate class of technology, as he does not claim any nuclear effects are taking place. Over the years he has produced a true portfolio of patents, of which the following provide a reasonable representation. Mills hydrino-related patents have been source of significant controversy at the US patent office[160].

  • (Mills, 1996) US 6024935 A[161] Lower-energy hydrogen methods and structures Methods and apparatus for releasing energy from hydrogen atoms (molecules) by stimulating their electrons to relax to quantized lower energy levels and smaller radii (smaller semimajor and semiminor axes) than the "ground state" by providing energy sinks or means to remove energy resonant with the hydrogen energy released to stimulate these transitions. An energy sink, energy hole, can be provided by the transfer of at least one electron between participating species including atoms, ions, molecules, and ionic and molecular compounds. 
  • (Mills, 2011) WO 2011116236 A2[162] Electrochemical hydrogen-catalyst power system An electrochemical power system is provided that generates an electromotive force (EMF) from the catalytic reaction of hydrogen to lower energy (hydrino) states providing direct conversion of die energy released from the hydrino reaction into electricity, the system comprising at least two components chosen from: a catalyst or a source of catalyst; atomic hydrogen or a source of atomic hydrogen; reactants to form the catalyst or source of catalyst and atomic hydrogen or source of atomic hydrogen, and one or more reactants to initiate the catalysis of atomic hydrogen. 
  • (Mills, 2015) WO 2015184252 A1[163] Electrical power generation systems and methods regarding same The present disclosure relates to the field of power generation and, in particular, to systems, devices, and methods for the generation of power. More specifically, embodiments of the present disclosure are directed to power generation devices and systems, as well as related methods, which produce optical power, plasma, and thermal power and produces electrical power via an optical to electric power converter, plasma to electric power converter, photon to electric power converter, or a thermal to electric power converter, in addition, embodiments of the present disclosure describe systems, devices, and methods that use the ignition of a water or water-based fuel source to generate optical power, mechanical power, electrical power, and/or thermal power using photovoltaic power converters. These and other related embodiments are described in detail in the present disclosure. 

Ability to be scaled

The energy generation process can be represented as shown in the System Representation. [41] For this technology to be scaled up consideration needs to be given to the logistics of scaling up of the input energy and/or input materials, and to the environmental impact arising from pollutants, waste, and land use.

  • Assuming deuterium is a key resource for this technology, the implications of large scale plants to extract this isotope (probably from sea water) would need to be assessed (e.g. costs and environmental impact). Similarly, the need for other resources (such as metals) would need to be assessed.
  • The potential impact of radioactive waste from an LENR process should be investigated in greater detail.

Also, it is not clear whether LENR would be operated at large scale plant level, or as a portable or in-home energy device. In the latter case, the implications for health and safety should be investigated.

The costs associated with radiation shielding should be factored into overall product design costs, assuming radiation (in the form of gamma rays and/or neutrons) is generated; and hazardous waste handling and decommissioning costs.

It is only when all of these potential costs are estimated and totalled that we can determine the ability of this technology to be scaled. It requires an evaluation of its full socio-economic and environmental impacts.

This will enable a dramatic and rapid conversion of existing coal and gas burning electric power plants to a “green” source with minimal fuel costs. Potential applications include even in transportation, water purification, small businesses and homes[164].

Environmental impact

The long-term environmental impact of a prospective energy technology should be considered and compared with alternative technologies. One way to do this is to use a Sustainability Scale [165] This takes into account all aspects of the technology's life-cycle, including its dependencies. Although the sustainability of a nuclear fusion process might appear promising in terms of the long-term supply of deuterium, its environmental impact could have a significant factor in the form of radiation and radioactive waste associated with the decommissioning process. Neutron bombardment affects the vessel containing the nuclear reaction, and so once the plant is decommissioned the site will be radioactive. The radioactive products are "short lived" (up to 100 years) compared to the waste from a fission power plant (which lasts for thousands of years). [166]

Cold fusion is a technology which is in laboratory table top scale and lacks enough proof of concept. So there is no known environmental impact. Nevertheless, we can extrapolate from the lab scale observations of the past 25 years.

Resource use

Every energy technology is likely to have some environmental impact, in terms of resources used. What sets apart LENR is its unique energy density, because of the supposed nuclear nature of the phenomenon. Tiny amounts of mass would suffice to generate large quantities of energy, following Einstein's E = mc2. Therefore, any environmental impact related to resources is expected to be relatively small compared to say, the global flow of oil to keep our modern world running (indicatively, a factor 1 million times less).

LENR-processes essentially depend on two elements :

  • hydrogen : the most abundant element in the universe[167]. On earth, hydrogen (or perhaps Deuterium), can be easily extracted from seawater in quantities that are sufficient for at least millions of years.
  • metal : all known LENR processes are based on hydrogen-metal interactions, for example Nickel or Palladium. Nickel[168] is a relatively abundant metal, with no shortage expected. Palladium[169], however, is a much more rare and expensive metal. A key question in terms of sustainability, as yet unresolved, is whether the metal is necessarily "used up" in LENR reactions, or whether in fact LENR systems are possible where the metal acts purely catalytically, i.e. can be used indefinitely.

Emissions / waste

No significant material emissions are expected from LENR systems. Perhaps helium is formed, perhaps metals are transmuted, or perhaps the hydrogen is simply brought to a lower energy state as proposed by Mills. In either case, the volume of waste streams will be negligible for the planet.

Given uncertainties around the theories and mechanisms that might be taking place, additional scrutiny and testing of such systems might be warranted. For example, transmuted metals (or other elements used in the process) could in theory be changed into radioactive isotopes. If this is the case then the assumptions about it being a safe energy source could become questionable. For example, local in-house or in-vehicle energy generators might not meet adequate safe guards. Also, the presence of widespread sources of radioactive waste would not represent a sustainable approach, in terms of health, safety and disposal issues.

Neutron bombardment affects the vessel containing the nuclear reaction, and so once the plant is decommissioned the site will be radioactive. The radioactive products are "short lived" (up to 100 years) compared to the waste from a fission power plant (which lasts for thousands of years). [166]

Absence of radiation [questionable]

The key observation with respect to LENR technology, as opposed to High Energy Nuclear Reactions such as fission, is the absence of ionising radiation. This is why LENR can be considered an Abundant Clean Energy source. As one early cold fusion critic asked : "if this is really nuclear fusion, then where are the dead graduate students ?". In over 25 years of experiments, none have been observed.

Given uncertainties around the theories and mechanisms that might be taking place, additional scrutiny and testing of such systems might be warranted. For example, nuclear reactions usually produce a high energy gamma ray or particle. Gamma rays are ionising radiation[170]. A neutron or other particle that causes transmutation[171] of an element could result in a radioactive isotope[172], which itself produces ionising radiation. Therefore, the actual process would need to be tested to check that there are no direct or indirect sources of radiation from the process.

Risks associated with a prize in this space

Risks are associated with all radical innovations, and that can be due to several factors. A good technology might not succeed in the marketplace due to poor marketing and promotion. The perceived safety and environmental impact of a technology is also important to successful adoption. [173] [174] [175] The perception of the risks associated with a nuclear process are real and significant. Some people will inevitably confuse nuclear fusion and fission, and attribute the safety and environmental risks of current day fission reactors with those of the proposed fusion reactors. [In the early days of MRI scanners they were renamed from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance scanners to Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanners; perhaps to prevent [unwarranted] associations with nuclear fission.]

Poor implementation of a technology can also prevent successful adoption of a good technology. These are risks that come into effect after the awarding of an energy technology prize, but perhaps the associated challenge can provide post award support to ensure that these risks are reduced. In addition, of course, there can be risks associated with the technical efficacy of the technology itself, and the logistics surrounding its development, operation and decommissioning. To date very little is known about this, and that remains a potential risk.

In a recent report, "The Status of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Technology"[176] it was noted that "the LENR field[176] may be on the verge of expanding rapidly as R&D efforts exist in China, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United States and elsewhere," and experts also note[177] that within this growth, challenges will continue to be inconsistent results, crude experiments, and limits to funding.

Physicist David Nagel notes that,[51] "Even if a device clears the hurdles of reproducibility and usefulness, its developers face an uphill battle of regulatory approval and customer acceptance".

It's also noted that some of the setback in researching cold fusion/LENR as a potential power source may be related to the stigma itself[177], which leaves fewer scientists willing to risk their professional reputations to even explore possibility in the area.

Given that there is no scientifically proven theory (across peers of nuclear physicists) this means that mechanisms might be unknown and so robust testing would be required to check that the process meets multiple requirements. For example testing might be required to:

  • Check if ionising radiation is emitted
  • Determine if any radioactive byproducts are produced, and
  • Demonstrate that energy arises from a nuclear reaction, rather than a chemical reaction or other mechanism (e.g. phase change).

The risk associated with this testing is the potential complexity, time, cost, and expertise required; in order to conduct robust testing. It might require the dismantling of complex prototypes. This could take a significant amount of time; and the owner might not be willing to comply with such tests.

Failure to conduct such robust testing could result in a risk that the prize is awarded to a system that turns out not to be based on nuclear reactions [and so might not deliver an abundant energy source], or it might not be sustainable because of radioactive byproducts or other environmental / safety concerns.

Positive energy tests to evaluate this technology

The inputs and outputs for any energy generation process can be represented as shown in the System Representation. [178] The efficiency of the system is represented by the output energy divided by the input energy. Note that all energy inputs should be accounted for, including any internal energy storage within the prototype itself. This internal energy could be in any form, not just electrical energy. This latter point is particularly relevant to the verification of LENR, and a number of suggestions are made below about how to deal with this.

The usual method to measure Excess Heat from LENR experiments is through precise calorimetry. Calorimetry seeks to establish whether more energy is coming out of a system than what is being put in. Unfortunately, whilst the principle seems simple, obtaining unequivocal results can sometimes prove elusive.

To be generally accepted, the X Prize test would need be thorough, but the measured effect would also need to be repeatable and sizeable, as well as being able to exclude any chemical [or phase change] origin of the generated power.

  • Exclude measurement error - the effects must be of sufficient magnitude (say at least 1W power output) with a sufficient energy output / energy input ratio (e.g. at least COP 2).
  • Exclude chemical origin - the energy generated per kg of material must be at least a certain factor above any possible chemical energy from such a mass
  • Exclude radioactive origin - the energy must be shown not to originate from radioactive elements (e.g. the 1903 Radium clock[179])
  • Ensure repeatability - it would be important for the energy effect to be demonstrable repeatedly, possibly over several devices.
  • Avoid ambiguity - some methods are prone to ambiguity, e.g. tests where water is turned into steam, leading to endless challenges on whether the steam is "dry"

Comparison with chemical energy

The above point about the energy generated being higher than energy from a chemical reaction, makes sense if the proposed energy source is to be an abundant energy source, and it is to liberate the potential high energy density benefits of a nuclear process. In particular, for a typical nuclear process we would expect the energy liberated to be much greater than any chemical reaction [180]. For comparison purposes the energy value for petrol (gasoline) is approximately 12 kWh/kg. [181] So a prototype in a laboratory experiment should, for example, be able to liberate much more than 12 Wh per gram of "fuel" consumed. So at 1 Watt we would expect to see continuous power provided for much longer than 12 hours.

Minimum requirements

With regard to scalability and application in the real-world we might want to be more demanding of the minimum requirements for an LENR prototype. After all the purpose of the XPRIZE is not [just] to seek scientific proof of the viability of LENR, it is to identify (and hopefully encourage the application of) viable new energy technologies that can provide abundant energy. Therefore, an LENR minimum requirement of 20 Watts of continuous power for at least one hour, per gram of fuel consumed, seems reasonable. Indeed some might suggest that prototypes should be able to deliver at least one kW of power (for at least one hour), if they have any chance of seeing deployment in the real-world within a decade.

Setting such a minimum requirement also has the benefit of revealing prototypes that did not produce nuclear power, but instead relied on some unidentified effect (e.g. ambient energy, a store of input energy, chemical reaction, or phase change).

Robust scientific experiments

The testing of LENR experiments needs to be robust, and in particular obtaining conclusive and repeatable evidence of a nuclear reaction should be part of the test criteria. It might be that better experiments and measurement approaches are required.

Given the uncertainty, and lack of understanding, surrounding LENR it could be useful to conduct before and after material composition tests of the "nuclear fuel". In particular, quantify the material's isotopic composition before and after the reaction. It is useful to also quantify the chemical composition before and after the reaction. This serves a number of useful purposes:

  • Scientific evidence is collected to better understand the process
  • It confirms whether the process is chemical, fission or fusion (or something else)
  • The efficiency of the process can be calculated (kWh/kg of fuel)
  • Its potential environmental impact can be assessed, by identifying hazardous byproducts (e.g. chemical pollutants or radioactive isotopes)

Note that any gaseous emission would need to be collected too.

It is recommended that these experiments are conducted in an independent laboratory, that has access to all of the necessary equipment for collecting evidence of a nuclear reaction, and quantifying it.

Experimental techniques

The test of Rossi’s technology[182] reveals some of the testers and the experimental techniques used:-

  • Infrared measurement [for heat]; but the method is subject to large errors based on settings which are specific to different materials and temperatures.
  • The inputs and outputs were recorded on computer drives and cameras, for future analysis by a committee of [7] scientists.
  • Weighed the device [and fuel] before the test began, and compared the weight lost over the course of the month (or longer) with the energy produced.
  • Calculations for the convection loss of heat; and radiated energy.
  • Some reactors have exploded ("not very violent, just a pressure release") [so safety procedures advised]

Another account[183] mentions experiments lasting 96 hours, and 116 hours.

An Index of LENR Experimental Methodologies[184] lists the experimental configuration, input power, duration and what outputs to search for.

Related research that does not claim to constitute an "abundant clean energy source"

As with other technologies, there are a few domains close to LENR which are interesting in itself, but which do not constitute an abundant clean energy source. They are included here for reference.

Transmutation

Transmutation of elements is an age old dream.[185][186] A few researchers in the LENR domain focus on transmutation, rather than on energy generation.

Joe Champion

Joe Champion has reported conversion of copper to gold and platinum and has termed it the resonant atomic transmutation process. The original theory was the single conversion of copper to gold. The formation of platinum was not predicted but was an unexpected occurrence.[187][188]

References

  1. ITER - The international demonstration project for high temperature nuclear fusion [under construction].
  2. Introduction to nuclear fusion power [video].
  3. MIT Scientists Discover Secret to Cold Fusion posted by Jeremy Rys February 18, 2014
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HjvL4zNLOGw
  5. 5.0 5.1 Cold fusion: A case study for scientific behavior[1]
  6. 6.0 6.1 The Status of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Technology[2]
  7. http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/KimYEboseeinste.pdf
  8. https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Cold_fusion/Theory/Widom-Larsen_theory
  9. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258790742_Pico-Chemistry_the_Possibility_of_New_Phases_in_Some_Hydrogenmetal_Systems
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 ELECTRICAL POWER FROM HYDROGEN TO DARK MATTER[3]
  11. http://chavascience.com/en/news/articles/list-of-articles/25-epicatalysis-supra-chemistry-and-the-dynamical-casimir-effect
  12. [/articles.chicagotribune.com/1991-12-15/news/9104220635%201%20james-john-brophy-national-cold-fusion-institute-mr-brophy http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1991-12-15/news/9104220635_1_james-john-brophy-national-cold-fusion-institute-mr-brophy]
  13. http://tech.mit.edu
  14. https://en.m.wikiversity.org/wiki/Cold_fusion/Wikipedia_article_project/Draft_A#CITEREFTaubes1993
  15. https://www.amazon.com/Bad-Science-Short-Weird-Fusion/dp/0394584562
  16. http://newenergytimes.com/v2/sr/ColdFusion1989/MIT/BostonHerald.shtml
  17. http://partners.nytimes.com/library/national/science/050399sci-cold-fusion.html
  18. http://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue26/nightatmovies.html
  19. https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/37168/23248677-MIT.pdf?sequence=2
  20. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/10/26/us/utah-to-start-search-for-cold-fusion-scientist.html
  21. http://www.deseretnews.com/article/179738/FUSION-FATHERS-MAY-BE-BACK-IN-LAB---BUT-WHERE.html
  22. http://www.nef.or.jp/english/aboutnef/pdf/2010_01_p3.pdf
  23. https://www.linkedin.com/in/steven-b-krivit-5422a552/de
  24. http://newenergytimes.com/v2/books/RebirthofColdFusion/AboutTRCF.shtml
  25. https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Rebirth_of_Cold_Fusion.html?id=MUfEAAAACAAJ&hl=en
  26. http://www.courant.com/news/connecticut/hc-mozzelle-brown-verdict-mallove-1025-20141024-story.html
  27. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/12/science/martin-fleischmann-cold-fusion-seeker-dies-at-85.html
  28. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00114-010-0711-x
  29. https://www.blackrock.com/corporate/en-us/about-us
  30. https://www.blackrock.com/corporate/en-us/literature/whitepaper/us-shale-boom-us-version.pdf
  31. In Cold Fusion 2.0, Who's Scamming Whom
  32. Nuclear Fusion Power article by World Nuclear Association
  33. https://www.scribd.com/document/241059582/Bockris-Do-Nuclear-Reactions-Take-Place-Under-Chemical-Stimulation
  34. http://www.human-resonance.org/transmutation.html
  35. http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/IwamuraYlowenergyn.pdf
  36. http://www.opednews.com/articles/Low-Energy-Nuclear-Reactio-by-Christopher-Calder-Andrea-Rossi_Energy-Policy_Industrial-Heat-Llc_Lenr-141013-530.html
  37. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/its-not-cold-fusion-but-its-something/
  38. 38.0 38.1 http://www.coolescence.com
  39. 39.0 39.1 http://www.prweb.com/releases/2017/01/prweb13961529.htm
  40. http://beforeitsnews.com/alternative/2016/11/veterans-call-to-action-standing-rock-lakota-sioux-james-martinez-3440934.html
  41. 41.0 41.1 Bostock A. (2017). System Representation, Energy Wiki
  42. http://coldfusionnow.org/niweek-2013-features-dennis-cravens-experiment/
  43. http://www.iscmns.org
  44. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Conference_on_Cold_Fusion
  45. 45.0 45.1 http://iccf18.research.missouri.edu
  46. http://iccf19.com
  47. http://iccf20.net
  48. http://www.anthropoceneinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/LENRaries.pdf
  49. http://brilliantlightpower.com/theory-overview/
  50. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brilliant_Light_Power
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 Cold Fusion Lives: Experiments Create Energy When None Should Exist[4]
  52. 52.0 52.1 A critical analysis of the hydrino model[5]
  53. http://cherokeefund.com/tom-darden/
  54. http://fortune.com/2015/09/27/ceo-cherokee-investment-partners-low-energy-nuclear-reaction/
  55. https://ftalphaville.ft.com/2016/11/25/2180322/so-neil-woodford-invested-in-a-cold-fusion-company/
  56. http://infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/DardenInterview.pdf
  57. 57.0 57.1 Rossi has been granted US patent on the E-Cat — fuel mix specified[6]
  58. Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device[7]
  59. 59.0 59.1 Study of the Replica of Rossi's High Temperature Generator. New Results[8]
  60. 60.0 60.1 China's LENR is getting excess 600 watts of heat from 780 watts of input power[9]
  61. http://www.bizjournals.com/triangle/blog/techflash/2016/04/scientist-sues-raleigh-cold-fusion-startup.html
  62. http://brillouinenergy.com
  63. http://brillouinenergy.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/SRI_ProgressReport.pdf
  64. http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20170301005566/en/Brillouin-Energy-Closes-7.75-Million-Series
  65. http://brillouinenergy.com/science/lenr-cecr/#sthash.3BtaL5vN.dpuf
  66. http://coldfusionnow.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Brillouin-Hot-Tube-Boiler.jpg
  67. http://coldfusionnow.org/brillouin-energy-patent-granted-in-china/
  68. 68.0 68.1 http://world.std.com/~mica/nanortechnology.htm
  69. http://www.currentscience.ac.in/Volumes/108/04/0595.pdf
  70. 70.0 70.1 http://lenr-invest.com/index.php/portfolio/key-investments
  71. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lewis_Larsen2
  72. http://lattice-energy.blogspot.fr
  73. https://www.depts.ttu.edu/irim/Reports/StateReports/SYSTEM/Minutes/BoardMinutes2015_1211.pdf
  74. http://www.nichenergy.com
  75. http://hydrofusion.com
  76. http://lenr-cars.com
  77. 77.0 77.1 https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015040077A1
  78. 78.0 78.1 http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.html&r=1&p=1&f=G&l=50&d=PG01&S1=20170025191.PGNR.&OS=dn/20170025191&RS=DN/20170025191
  79. 79.0 79.1 http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.html&r=1&p=1&f=G&l=50&d=PG01&S1=20170022055.PGNR.&OS=dn/20170022055&RS=DN/20170022055
  80. http://workshop.wonderevents.fr
  81. http://news.newenergytimes.net/2015/11/24/japans-leadership-in-lenrs-continues/
  82. http://jcfrs.org/JCF17/jcf17-abstracts.pdf
  83. 83.0 83.1 https://www.google.com/patents/US20130243143
  84. http://www.22passi.it/coherence2012/coherence%2014%20dicembre%202012%20Celani%20wire.pdf
  85. http://www.cleanplanet.co.jp/index.php?lang=en
  86. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_McKubre
  87. http://infinite-energy.com/resources/kimmel.html
  88. https://research.missouri.edu/news/story.php?331
  89. https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/37370/SidneyKimmelInstituteOverviewPresentation.pdf?sequence=1
  90. Replication of the Apparent Excess Heat Effect in a Light Water--Potassium Carbonate_ Nickel Electrolytic Cell[10]
  91. NASA Glenn Research Center experience with “LENR Phenomenon”[11]
  92. http://www.enea.it/it/Ufficio-Bruxelles/documenti/eventi/new-advancements-on-the-fleischmann-pons-effect/2-vittorio-violante-pdf
  93. http://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue119/gates.html
  94. http://hayabusa1.lns.tohoku.ac.jp/en/research/?id=a5
  95. http://coldfusionnow.org/opening-ceremony-for-new-clean-energy-research-lab-at-tohoku-university/
  96. https://drive.google.com/file/d/0Bx2cC35KJTwsc0JoNC1YcGZzejA/view
  97. http://www.quantumheat.org
  98. http://www.cryofusion.org
  99. https://www.linkedin.com/in/jacques-dufour-b1441441/
  100. http://www.rle.mit.edu/bio-hagelstein/
  101. http://www.physics.purdue.edu/people/faculty/yekim.php
  102. http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/KimYEgeneralize.pdf
  103. http://lenrexplained.com/about/
  104. http://nucat-energy.com/nucat-energy-leadership/
  105. http://files.meetup.com/19011604/Curt%20Brown%20talk--Slides%20of%20BACF%20Meetup%20August%2027th.pdf
  106. https://www.linkedin.com/in/curt-brown-85a3041/
  107. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EXEfe2_KOgI
  108. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoshiaki_Arata
  109. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadahiko_Mizuno
  110. http://coldfusionnow.org/interview-with-yuri-bazhutov-by-peter-gluck/
  111. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Xing_Li17
  112. http://ssiccf-20.xmu.edu.cn
  113. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Akito_Takahashi
  114. http://www.etiam.fi
  115. http://www.cnptechnologies.net
  116. http://www.e-catworld.com/2012/08/15/celani-reports-from-iccf-17/
  117. kresenn.com
  118. http://energycatalyzer3.com/news/british-lenr-company-working-with-celani
  119. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HN4VK82Mngc
  120. http://archive.boston.com/news/science/articles/2004/07/27/heating_up_a_cold_theory?pg=full
  121. http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2011/11/02/andrea-rossi-italian-cold-fusion-plant.html
  122. http://coldfusion3.com/blog/rumor-mill-us-navy-has-shut-down-cold-fusion-research
  123. https://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/thread/2902-so-defkalion-had-nothing/
  124. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SuRGpRZ1t5E
  125. http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/Defkaliondefkaliong.pdf
  126. [/www.necn.com/news/new-england/Connecticut-Man-Sentenced-in-Murder-of-New-Hampshire-Physicist-287716481.html#ixzz4YmkV083l http://www.necn.com/news/new-england/Connecticut-Man-Sentenced-in-Murder-of-New-Hampshire-Physicist-287716481.html#ixzz4YmkV083l
  127. 127.0 127.1 Cold Fusion News about Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi E-Cat (Energy Catalyzer)
  128. https://www.google.com/patents/EP0698893A3
  129. https://www.google.com/patents/EP0461690A2
  130. https://www.google.com/patents/WO1991001036A1
  131. https://ecatsite.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/be1002780.pdf
  132. https://ecatsite.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/be1003296.pdf
  133. https://ecatsite.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/be1002781.pdf
  134. https://ecatsite.wordpress.com/2012/02/27/belgian-lanr-patents/
  135. https://ecatsite.wordpress.com/2012/09/14/cold-fusion-catalyst/
  136. https://www.google.com/patents/EP1551032A1
  137. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2007061019A1?cl=en&dq=ininventor:%22Yoshiaki+Arata%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjo1LnBtKTSAhVG2BoKHUqUBLEQ6AEIJTAA
  138. https://www.google.com/patents/WO1995035574A1
  139. https://www.google.com/patents/EP1656678B1
  140. https://www.google.com/patents/US20070280398
  141. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2007117475A2
  142. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2009125444A1
  143. https://www.google.com/patents/CA2920500A1
  144. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015127263A3
  145. https://www.google.com/patents/EP2368252B1
  146. https://www.google.com/patents/EP2754156A2
  147. http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.html&r=1&p=1&f=G&l=50&d=PG01&S1=20170038095.PGNR.&OS=dn%2F20170038095&RS=DN%2F20170038095
  148. https://www.google.com/patents/EP2597652A1
  149. https://www.google.com/patents/US20110122984
  150. https://www.google.com/patents/US20140332087
  151. https://www.google.com/patents/DE102014014209A9?cl=en
  152. https://www.google.com/patents/EP2474501A1
  153. https://www.google.com/patents/CA2772463A1
  154. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2013076378A2
  155. https://www.google.com/patents/US20130263597
  156. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2013108159A1
  157. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015008859A3
  158. https://www.google.com/patents/DE102013110249A1
  159. https://www.google.com/patents/US8419919
  160. http://www.villagevoice.com/news/the-empire-strikes-back-6394871
  161. https://www.google.com/patents/US6024935
  162. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2011116236A2
  163. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015184252A1
  164. Cold Fusion Heats Up: Fusion Energy and LENR Update
  165. Bostock A. (2017). Sustainability Scale, Innovation Future Specialist, (UK).
  166. 166.0 166.1 Does fusion give off radiation? EURO Fusion: European Consortium for the Development of Fusion Energy
  167. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen
  168. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel
  169. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palladium
  170. [12]
  171. [13]
  172. https://www.britannica.com/science/radioactive-isotope
  173. Slovic and Weber (2013). Perception of Risk Posed by Extreme Events, Regulation of Toxic Substances and Hazardous Waste (2nd edition) (Applegate, Gabba, Laitos, and Sachs, Editors), Foundation Press, Forthcoming
  174. Michael Siegrist, Heinz Gutscher & Timothy C. Earle (2006). Perception of risk: the influence of general trust, and general confidence, Journal of Risk Research: Volume 8, 2005 - Issue 2
  175. Linda Steg and Inge Sievers (2016). Cultural Theory and Individual Perceptions of Environmental Risks, Environment and Behavior: Vol 32, Issue 2, pp. 250 - 269, First published date: July-26-2016
  176. 176.0 176.1 The Status of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Technology[14]
  177. 177.0 177.1 The cold fusion horizon[15]
  178. Bostock A. (2017). System Representation, Energy Wiki
  179. http://www.hp-gramatke.net/perpetuum/english/page0040.htm
  180. Energy Densities
  181. Petrol Energy Density Calculation
  182. LENR – Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: Confidential Industrial Heat Update Published at Trial from Tom Darden of Industrial Heat LLC from March 7, 2014 (published March 12, 2017)
  183. Forbes (2013), Finally! Independent Testing Of Rossi's E-Cat Cold Fusion Device: Maybe The World Will Change After All
  184. New Energy Times (2013), Index of LENR Experimental Methodologies
  185. http://www.lloydlibrary.org/exhibits/alchemy/history.html
  186. http://www.ludkow.info/cf/406bio_alchemy.pdf
  187. http://www.human-resonance.org/transmutation.html
  188. https://www.scribd.com/document/49118017/Joe-Champion-Transmutation